Species for Medicinal and Social Use with an Emphasis on Theobroma cacao L. (Cacao), Nicotiana tabacum L. (Tobacco), Actaea racemosa L. (Black Cohosh), and Humulus lupulus L. (Hops)

  • Joe-Ann McCoyEmail author
  • Johanna H. Young
  • Jessica M. Nifong
  • Kim Hummer
  • Jeanine DeNoma
  • Carlos H. Avendaño-Arrazate
  • Stephanie L. Greene
  • Michael B. Kantar


This chapter explores plants that are used for medicinal and social uses. It first gives a brief overview of taxa that are found throughout North America, how and where they are conserved and how they are distributed. It then looks at four economically important taxa, Theobroma cacao L. (cacao), Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco), Actaea racemosa L. (black cohosh), Humulus lupulus L. (Hops), as case studies of how medicinal and social plants have been used over the centuries and how their wild relatives have been conserved and how we can expect these plant to be used in the future.


Medicinal crop Wild collected Social-use crop Crop wild relative 


  1. Alexandrov OS, Divashuk MG, Yakovin NA et al (2012) Sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of subtelomeric repeat. Comp Cytogenet 6:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon (2003) Cimicifuga racemosa-Monograph. Altern Med Rev 8:186–189Google Scholar
  3. Avendaño ACH, Mendoza LA, Cueto MA et al (2014) Guía gráfica de los descriptores varietales de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) /Graphic handbook for description of cocoa varieties (Theobroma cacao L.). Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Publicación Especial No.5, 75 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Avendaño-Arrazate CH, Ogata-Aguilar N, Gallardo-Méndez RA et al (2010) Cacao diversidad en México. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. Centro de Investigación Regional Pácifico Sur. Campo Experimental Rosario Izapa, 86 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Avendaño-Arrazate CH, Villarreal-Fuentes JM, Campos-Rojas E et al. (2011) Diagnóstico del cacao en México. Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, 76 pGoogle Scholar
  6. Avendaño-Arrazate CH, Mendoza-López A, Hernández-Gómez E et al (2013) Mejoramiento genético participativo en cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Agroproductividad 6:71–80Google Scholar
  7. Barth HJ, Klinke C, Schmidt C (1994) The hop atlas: the history and geography of the cultivated plant. Joh. Barth and Sohn, Nuremburg, pp 383Google Scholar
  8. Bartley BGD (2005) The genetic diversity of cacao and its utilization. CABI, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brewers Association (2017) Accessed 24 Aug 2017
  10. Bressani R, Furlan A (1997) Chemical characterization of the seed and pulp of Theobroma bicolour. Coffee and Cocoa News 2(5):17–22Google Scholar
  11. Burgess AH (1964) Hops: botany, cultivation and utilization. Interscience Publishers Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Burk LG, Heggestad HE (1966) The genus Nicotiana: a source of resistance to diseases of cultivated tobacco. Econ Bot 20:76–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CacaoNet (2012) A global strategy for the conservation and use of cacao genetic resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy (B. Laliberté, compiler). Bioversity International, Montpellier, France, p 175Google Scholar
  14. Canter PH, Thomas H, Ernst E (2005) Bringing medicinal plants into cultivation: opportunities and challenges for biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol 23:180–185Google Scholar
  15. Castle L, Leopold S, Craft R, Kindscher K (2014) Ranking tool created for medicinal plants at risk of being overharvested in the wild. Ethnobiol Lett 5:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cech R (1999) Balancing conservation with utilization: restoring populations of commercially valuable medicinal herbs in forests and agroforests. United Plant Savers Newsletter. Winter: 4Google Scholar
  17. Chamberlain JL, Bush RJ, Hammett AL et al (2002) Eastern national forests: managing for nontimber forest products. Journal of Forestry 100:8–14Google Scholar
  18. Chaplin JF (1962) Transfer of black shank resistance from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia to flue-cured N. tabacum. Tob Sci 6:184–189Google Scholar
  19. Chaplin JF, Stavely JR, Litton CC et al (1982) Catalog of the tobacco introductions in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Tobacco Germplasm Collection (Nicotiana tabacum). USDA ARS Agri Rev Man No 27Google Scholar
  20. Chase MW, Knapp S, Cox AV et al (2003) Molecular systematics, GISH and the origin of hybrid taxa in Nicotiana (Solanaceae). Ann Bot 92:107–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheesman EE (1944) Notes on the nomenclature, classification and possible relationships of cocoa population. Trop Agric 21:144–159Google Scholar
  22. Chen SL, Yu H, Luo HM, Wu Q, Li CF, Steinmetz A (2016) Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: problems, progress, and prospects. Chin Med 11(1):37Google Scholar
  23. CITES. Plants Committee (2000) Convention on international trade in endangered species of Wild Fauna and Flora. December 11, 2000. Retrieved 5 Mar 2016.
  24. Clarkson JJ, Knapp S, Garcia VF et al (2004) Phylogenetic relationships in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) inferred from multiple plastid DNA regions. Mol Phylogenet Evol 33:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clement J, Looney P, Pate S et al (2012) Variability of phytochemical concentrations and phylogenetic mapping of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.). Planta Medica 78:35Google Scholar
  26. Collins WK (ed) (2013) Principles of flue-cured tobacco production, 2nd edn. W. K. Collins, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  27. Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (2010) Assessment report on Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt., rhizoma. Retrieved 5 Mar 2017.
  28. Compton J, Culham A (1998a) Reclassification of Actaea to include Cimicifuga and Soulieae: phylogeny from morphology, nrDNA ITS, and cpDNA trnL-F sequence variation. Taxon 47:593–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Compton J, Culham A (1998b) Phylogeny of Actaea including Cimicifuga (Ranunculaceae) inferred from nrDNA ITS sequence variation. Biochem Syst Ecol 26(2):185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cook A (1993) The population biology and demography of Cimicifuga rubifolia Kearney and the genetic relationship among North American Cimicifuga species. Ph.D dissertation, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, pp 141Google Scholar
  31. Cuatrecasas J (1964) Cacao and its allies. A taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma, Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium, vol 35. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C, pp 375–614Google Scholar
  32. Cushing EJ (1963) Late-Wisconsin pollen stratigraphy in east-central Minnesota. Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota. University microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  33. Davis J, Greenfield J (2003) Analysis of the economic viability of collecting select botanicals in North Carolina. Retrieved March 5, 2017, from
  34. Davis J, Persons WS (2014) Growing and marketing ginseng, goldenseal and other woodland medicinals. New Society Publishers, Gabriola IslandGoogle Scholar
  35. Dentali S, Zimmerman M (2012) Tonnage surveys of select North American Wild-Harvested Plants, 2006–2010. American Herbal Products Association, Silver Springs, Maryland. Retrieved on 5 Mar 2017.
  36. Dias LAS (2001) Origin and distribution of Theobroma cacao L.: a new scenario. In: Dias LAS (ed) Genetic improvement of cacao. Editora Folha de Vicosa Ltda, p xii.Google Scholar
  37. Dillinger TL, Barriga P, Escárcega S et al (2000) Food of the gods: cure for humanity? Acultural history of the medicinal ritual use of chocolate. J Nutr 130(Supplement):2057s–2072sCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eastwell K, Ocamb CM (2017) Virus diseases of hops. Pacific Northwest pest management handbook. Accessed 26 Aug 2017
  39. Eisenstein E, McCoy J, Kaur B (2013) Season-independent seed germination in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.). 2013. Am J Plant Sci (AJPS). Paper ID: 2600753Google Scholar
  40. FAOSTAT (2017) Food and agriculture statistical database. Accessed 29 Aug 2017
  41. Fleming GP, Coulling PP, Patterson KD et al (2010) The natural communities of Virginia: classification of ecological community groups. 2nd approximation. Ver. 2.3. VA Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  42. Florentine SK, Westbrooke ME, Gosney K et al (2006) The arid land invasive weed Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (Solanaceae): population and soil seed bank dynamics, seed germination patterns and seedling response to flood and drought. J Arid Env 66:218–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gairola S, El-Keblawy A, Mahmoud T (2016) A note on the current distribution of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae) in the United Arab Emirates. Natl Acad Sci Lett 39:461–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Galvez-Marroquín LA, Reyes-Reyes AL, Avendaño-Arrazate CH, Hernández-Gómez E, Mendoza-López A, Díaz-Fuentes VH (2016) Pataxte (Theobroma bicolor Humb. Bonpl) especie subutilizada en México. Agroproductividad 9(1):41–47Google Scholar
  45. Garcia D, Mancinib P, Pavan R, Mancini-filhoa J (2002) Antioxidant activity of macambo (Theobroma bicolor L.) extract. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 104:278–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garner WW, Allard HA (1920) Effect of the relative length of day and night and other factors of the environment on growth and reproduction in plants. J Agr Res 18:553–606Google Scholar
  47. Gent DH, Ocamb CM (2017) Hop downy mildew. Pacific Northwest pest management handbook. Accessed 26 Aug 2017
  48. Goodspeed TH (1954) The genus Nicotiana. Chronica Botanica, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  49. Gutiérrez-López N, Ovando-Medina I, Salvador-Figueroa M et al (2016) Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA. Peer J 4:e1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hamilton A (2004) Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods. Biodivers Conserv 13:1477–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hampton R, Small E, Haunold A (2001) Habitat and variability of Humulus lupulus var. lupuloides in upper Midwestern North America: a critical source of American hop germplasm. J Torrey Bot Soc 128:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harnly J, Pei C, Sun J et al (2016) Comparison of flow injection MS, NMR, and DNA sequencing; methods for identification and authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.). Planta Medica 82:250–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hasegawa I (1993) Molecular systematics of the tribe Cimicifugeae and allied genera in the Ranunculaceae. Ph.D. thesis, City University of New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Haunold A, Nickerson GB, Gampert U et al (1993) Agronomic and quality characteristics of native North American hops. Am Soc Brew Chem 51:133–137Google Scholar
  55. Hawkins B (2008) Plants for life: medicinal plant conservation and botanic gardens. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, RichmondGoogle Scholar
  56. Heist EP, Zaitlin D, Funnell DL, Nesmith WC, Schardl CL (2004) Necrotic lesion resistance induced by Peronospora tabacina on leaves of Nicotiana obtusifolia. Phytopathology 94:1178–1188Google Scholar
  57. Hernández-Gómez E, Hernández-Morales J, Avendaño-Arrazate CH et al (2015) Factores so¬cioeconómicos y parasitológicos que limitan la produc¬ción del cacao en Chiapas, México. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 33:232–246Google Scholar
  58. Johnson CS, Reed TD (1994) Tobacco. In: Arntzen CJ, Ritter EM (eds) Encyclopedia of agricultural science, vol 4. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  59. Kalvatchev Z, Garzaro D, Guerra CF (1998) Theobroma cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud. Agroalimentaria 6:23–25Google Scholar
  60. Kawatoko K (1998) Ecological studies on the geographical distribution of the genus Nicotiana, Bulletin of the leaf tobacco research lab. Japan Tobacco, Inc, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  61. Kaye T (2000) Propagation and population re-establishment for tall bugbane (Cimicifuga elata) on the Salem district, BLM preliminary report. BLM and The Institute for Applied Ecology, Corvallis 7 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaye T, Kirkland M (1999) Effects of timber harvest on Cimicifuga elata, a rare plant of western forests. Northwest Sci 73(3):159–167Google Scholar
  63. Kessler D, Bhattacharya S, Diezel C et al (2012) Unpredictability of nectar nicotine promotes outcrossing by hummingbirds in Nicotiana attenuata. Plant J 71:529–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Khoury CK, Greene S, Wiersema J, Maxted N, Jarvis A, Struik PC (2013) An inventory of crop wild relatives of the United States. Crop Sci 53(4):1496–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kim S-G, Yon F, Gaquerel E et al (2011) Tissue specific diurnal rhythms of metabolites and their regulation during herbivore attack in a native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata. PLoS One 6(10):e26214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kindscher K (2006) The conservation status of Echinacea species. Report to the US Forest Service, 247Google Scholar
  67. Knapp S, Chase MW, Clarkson JJ (2004) Nomenclatural changes and a new sectional classification in Nicotiana (Solanaceae). Taxon 53:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kyung-Eui R, Keener C, McPherson B (1997) Molecular phylogenetic study of the Ranunculaceae: utility of the nuclear 26S ribosomal DNA. Evolution 8:117–127Google Scholar
  69. Lewis RS (2011) Nicotiana. In: Kole C (ed) Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources, plantation and ornamental crops. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 185–208.
  70. Linton R (1924) Use of tobacco among North American Indians. Anthropol Leaflet Field Mus Nat Hist 15:1–27Google Scholar
  71. Lucas GB (1975) Diseases of tobacco, 3rd edn. Biological Consulting Associates, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  72. Lyke J (2001) Conservation status of Cimicifuga rubifolia, C. americana, and C. racemosa. Med Plant Spec Group Newsl 7:22–24Google Scholar
  73. Marsh CD, Clawson AB, Roe GC (1927) Wild tobaccos (Nicotiana trigonophylla Dunal and Nicotiana attenuata Torrey) as stock-poisoning plants. USDA Tech Bull 22:1–23Google Scholar
  74. Martin A, Sherington J (1997) Participatory research methods—implementation, effectiveness and institutional context. Agric Syst 55:195–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Maunder M, Higgens S, Culham A (2001) The effectiveness of botanic garden collections in supporting plant conservation: a European case study. Biodivers Conserv 10:383–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McCarthy EW, Chase MW, Knapp S, Litt A et al (2016) Transgressive phenotypes and generalist pollination in the floral evolution of Nicotiana polyploids. Nat Plants 2:16119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McCoy J (2004a) Noteworthy collections. Actaea racemosa (L.) var dissecta (gray). J Compton Castanea 69(4)Google Scholar
  78. McCoy J (2004b) Seed and rhizome propagation of Actaea racemosa L. and analysis of associated triterpene glycosides. PhD dissertation, Clemson University. Clemson, 10 Dec 2004Google Scholar
  79. McCoy J (2013) Medicinal plant pathogens. In: Persons WS, Davis JM (eds) Growing and marketing ginseng, goldenseal & other woodland medicinals, 2nd edn. Consortium book sales & distributors. Release- 4/2014. isbn: 9780865717664Google Scholar
  80. McCoy J, Davis J, Camper N, Kahn I, Bharanthi A (2006) Influence of rhizome propagule size on yields and Triterpene glycoside concentrations of Actaea racemosa. Hortscience 42(1):61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mendoza-López A, Avendaño-Arrazate CH, Hernández SL, Sandoval EA (2012) Pataxte (Theobroma bicolor) especie subutilizada en México. INIFAP. CIRPAS. Campo Experimental Rosario Izapa. Folleto productores No. 23. 32 pGoogle Scholar
  82. Miranda F (1962) Wild cacao in the Lacandona Forest, Chiapas, Mexico. Cacao (Turrialba). 7:7. CATIE, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  83. Motamayor JC, Risterucci AM, Lopez PA et al (2002) Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas. Heredity 89:380–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Murakami A, Darby P, Javornik B, Pais MSS, Seigner E, Lutz A, Svoboda P (2006) Microsatellite DNA analysis of wild hops, Humulus lupulus L. Genet Resour and Crop Evol 53:1553–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nabhan GP (1985) Native crop diversity in Aridoamerica: conservation of regional gene pools. Econ Bot 39:387–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nattero J, Cocucci AA (2007) Geographical variation in floral traits of the tree tobacco in relation to its hummingbird pollinator fauna. Biol J Linnean Soc 90:657–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Natureserve (2017) NatureServe explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0, NatureServe, Arlington. Accessed 8 Sept 2017
  88. Neve RA (1991) Hops. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ocamb CM, Gent DH (2017) Hop powdery mildew. Pacific Northwest pest management handbook. Accessed 26 Aug 2017
  90. Ogata N (2002) Studies of Mesoamerican tropical trees of the Maya Región and a case of study on the ethnobotany and phylogeography of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). University of California, Riverside. Ph.D. thesis, Riverside CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  91. Ogata N (2003) Domestication and distribution of the chocolate tree (T. cacao L.) in Mexico. In: Gómez-Pompa A, Allen M, Fedick S (eds) Lowland Maya area: three millennia at the human-wildland interface. Haworth Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Ogata N, Arturo G‐P, Taube KA (2006) The domestication and distribution of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics. In: McNeill C (ed) Chocolate in Mesoamerica: a cultural history of cacao. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, pp 69–89Google Scholar
  93. Pate S, Lance S, McCoy J et al (2012) Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Actaea racemosa L. (black cohosh). Am J Bot 99:274–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pengelly A, Bennett K (2012) Appalachian plant monographs. Black cohosh Actaea racemosa L. Published online at
  95. Phillips MW (2003) Origin, biogeography, genetic diversity and taxonomic affinities of the cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fungus Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) Evans et al. as determined using molecular, phytopathological and morpho-physiological evidence. Ph.D. thesis, University of Reading, Reading, vol 349, p 62Google Scholar
  96. Phillips-Mora W, Ortiz CF, Aime MC (2006, October) Fifty years of frosty pod rot in Central America: chronology of its spread and impact from Panama to Mexico. In proceedings 15th international Cocoa Research Conference [San José, Costa Rica, 9–14 October 2006]. Cocoa Producers’ Alliance (COPAL)/CATIEGoogle Scholar
  97. Predny ML, De Angelis P, Chamberlain JL (2006) Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa): an annotated bibliography. General technical report SRS-97, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, North Carolina, p 99Google Scholar
  98. Prescott-Allen C, Prescott-Allen R (1986) The first resource: wild species in the North America economy. Yale University Press, Newhaven, p 529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Radford A, Ahles H, Bell R (1968) Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, p 1183Google Scholar
  100. Rafferty SM (2002) Identification of nicotine by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of smoking pipe residue. J Archaeol Sci 29:897–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ramsey G (1965) A biosystematics study of the genus Cimicifuga (Ranunculaceae). Ph.D. dissertation, The university of Tennessee, Knoxville, pp 265Google Scholar
  102. Rios H, Ortiz R, Ponce M, Verde G, Martín L (2000) Farmers participation and access to agricultural biodiversity: response to plant breeding limitations in Cuba. In: Conservation and sustainable use of Agriculural biodiversity: a sourcebook. International Potato Center Users Perspectives with Agricultural Research and Development, Los Baños, Laguna Phillipines, pp 382–288Google Scholar
  103. Robbins C (2000) Comparative analysis of management regimes and medicinal plant trade monitoring mechanisms for American ginseng and goldenseal. Conserv Biol 14:1422–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rodríguez-Arévalo I, Mattana E, García L et al (2017) Conserving seeds of useful wild plants in Mexico: main issues and recommendations. Genet Resour Crop Evol 64:1141–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sanders S, McGraw JB (2005) Harvest recovery of goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis L. Am Midl Nat 153(1):87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Salmon ES (1934) Two new hops: Brewer’s favorite and Brewer’s gold. J South-East Agric Coll Wye Kent 34:93–105Google Scholar
  107. Shingu Y, Kudo T, Ohsato S et al (2005) Characterization of genes encoding metal tolerance proteins isolated from Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum. Biochem Biophys Res Com 331:675–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. SIAP (2016) Sistema de Información Agrícola y Pesquera. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y AlimentaciónGoogle Scholar
  109. Small E (1978) A numerical and nomenclatural analysis of morpho-teographical taxa of Humulus. Sys Bot 3:37–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Small E (1980) The relationships of hop cultivars and wild variants of Humulus lupulus. Can J Bot 58:676–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Small E (1981) A numerical analysis of morpho-geographic groups of cultivars of Humulus lupulus based on samples of cones. Can J Bot 59:311–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Small E, Catling PM (1995) Poorly known economic plants of Canada-5 Hop Humulus lupulus L. Bull Can Bot Assoc 28:24–26Google Scholar
  113. Small J, Chamberlain JL, Mathews DS (2011) Recovery of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) following experimental harvests. Am Midl Nat 166:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Smith HH (1968) Recent cytogenetic studies in the genus Nicotiana. In: Caspari EW (ed) Advances in genetics, vol 14. Academic Press Inc, New York, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  115. Snyder S (1997) The brewmaster’s bible: the gold standard for home brewing. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, p 71Google Scholar
  116. Stevens R (1967) The chemistry of hop constituents. Chem Rev 67:19–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Suggs R (2003) Market profile: black cohosh. Robbinsville, NC: yellow creek botanical institute. 12 p. Unpublished document. On file with: U.S. Department of agriculture, forest service., Southern research station, SRS-4702, 1650 Ramble road, Blacksburg, VA 24060Google Scholar
  118. Tournois J (1914) Etudes sur la sexualité du hublon. Ann Sci Nat Bot Ser IX 19:49–191Google Scholar
  119. Trojak-Goluch A, Berbeć A (2011) Growth, development and chemical characteristics of tobacco lines carrying black root rot resistance derived from Nicotiana glauca (Grah.). Pant Breed 130:92–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. United Plant Savers (2017) “At risk” and “to watch” species list. J Med Plant Conserv, Spring 2017, p 9. Accessed 8 Sept 2017
  121. UPOV (2011) Descriptores varietales de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ginebra, p 28Google Scholar
  122. Uprety Y, Asselin H, Dhakal A et al (2012) Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Upton R (ed) (2002) Black cohosh rhizome. Actaea racemosa L. (syn Cimicifuga racemosaa (L) Nutt.) standards of analysis, quality control, and therapeutics. American herbal pharmacopeia and therapeutic compendium, Santa Cruz, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  124. Weakley A (2015) Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia. UNC Herbarium, NC Botanical Gardens, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, vol 1, pp 320Google Scholar
  125. Westfall R, Glickman B (2004) Conservation of indigenous medicinal plants in Canada. INGoogle Scholar
  126. Winge O (1914) Investigation on hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and H. japonicus Sieb. Et Zucc Compt Rend Trav Carlsberg Lab 11:1–46Google Scholar
  127. Zerega N, Mori S, Lindquistt C et al (2002) Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) to identify black cohosh (Actaea racemosa). Econ Bot 56:154–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhang D, Motilal L (2016) Origin, dispersal, and current global distribution of cacao genetic diversity. In: Cacao diseases, Bailey BA, Meinhardt LW (eds) . Springer International Pusblishing Switzerland, Cham, Switzerland, p 633Google Scholar
  129. Zimmermann C, Likens S, Haunold A, Horner C, Roberts C (1975) Registration of comet hop. Crop Sci 15:98CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joe-Ann McCoy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Johanna H. Young
    • 1
  • Jessica M. Nifong
    • 2
  • Kim Hummer
    • 3
  • Jeanine DeNoma
    • 3
  • Carlos H. Avendaño-Arrazate
    • 4
  • Stephanie L. Greene
    • 5
  • Michael B. Kantar
    • 6
  1. 1.The North Carolina Arboretum Germplasm RepositoryAshevilleUSA
  2. 2.US Nicotiana Germplasm Collection, Department of Crop and Soil SciencesNC State UniversityRaleighUSA
  3. 3.USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Research Leader and Small Fruit Curator at the USDA National Clonal Germplasm RepositoryCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Cocoa Program, Experimental Field Rosario Izapa-INIFAPTuxtla chicoMexico
  5. 5.USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, National Laboratory for Genetic Resources PreservationFort CollinsUSA
  6. 6.Tropical Plant and Soil ScienceUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations