Mental Health, Pre-migratory Trauma and Post-migratory Stressors Among Adult Refugees

  • Jessica CarlssonEmail author
  • Charlotte Sonne


The refugee experience is characterised by exposure to multiple traumatic events both in one’s country of origin and during displacement. Researchers have found that severity of traumatic events and cumulative trauma are associated with an increased prevalence of mental health problems. Refugees typically also experience numerous post-migratory stressors following arrival in the resettlement country. Accordingly, several studies have found an association between pre-migratory traumatic events, post-migratory stressors and mental health outcomes in refugees. In this chapter, common trauma-related mental health problems among refugees will be presented. The influence of traumatic events and post-migratory stressors on refugee mental health will be discussed. The information provided in the chapter is based on available research as well as the authors’ clinical experience at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP) in Denmark.


Trauma Post-migratory stressors Refugee Mental health PTSD 


  1. Aroche, J., & Coello, M. (1994). Towards a systematic approach for the treatment and rehabilitation of torture and trauma survivors: The experience of STARTTS in Australia. Retrieved from
  2. Beiser, M., & Hou, F. (2001). Language acquisition, unemployment and depressive disorder among Southeast Asian refugees: A 10-year study. Social Science & Medicine, 53(10), 1321–1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beiser, M., & Hou, F. (2016). Mental health effects of premigration trauma and postmigration discrimination on refugee youth in Canada. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204(6), 464–470. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bevelander, P. (2016). Integrating refugees into labor markets. IZA World of Labor, 269.
  5. Bhui, K., Abdi, A., Abdi, M., Pereira, S., Dualeh, M., Robertson, D., … Ismail, H. (2003). Traumatic events, migration characteristics and psychiatric symptoms among Somali refugees – Preliminary communication. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(1), 35–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Birman, D., & Tran, N. (2008). Psychological distress and adjustment of Vietnamese refugees in the United States: Association with pre- and postmigration factors. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78(1), 109–120. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair, R. G. (2000). Risk factors associated with PTSD and major depression among Cambodian refugees in Utah. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 23–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogic, M., Ajdukovic, D., Bremner, S., Franciskovic, T., Galeazzi, G. M., Kucukalic, A., … Priebe, S. (2012). Factors associated with mental disorders in long-settled war refugees: Refugees from the former Yugoslavia in Germany, Italy and the UK. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(3), 216–223. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bogic, M., Njoku, A., & Priebe, S. (2015). Long-term mental health of war-refugees: A systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 15(1), 29. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bourque, F., van der Ven, E., & Malla, A. (2011). A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants. Psychological Medicine, 41(5), 897–910. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buhmann, C. B., Nordentoft, M., Ekstroem, M., Carlsson, J., & Mortensen, E. L. (2015). The effect of flexible cognitive-behavioural therapy and medical treatment, including antidepressants on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatised refugees: Pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(3), 252–259. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantor-Graae, E., Pedersen, C. B., Mcneil, T. F., & Mortensen, P. (2003). Migration as a risk factor for schizophrenia: A Danish population-based cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 182(2), 117–122. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlsson, J. M. (2005). Mental health and health-related quality of life in tortured refugees. Copenhagen, Denmark: Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims.Google Scholar
  14. Carlsson, J. M., Mortensen, E. L., & Kastrup, M. (2006). Predictors of mental health and quality of life in male tortured refugees. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60(1), 51–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlsson, J. M., Olsen, D. R., Mortensen, E. L., & Kastrup, M. (2006). Mental health and health-related quality of life: A 10-year follow-up of tortured refugees. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(10), 725–731. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carswell, K., Blackburn, P., & Barker, C. (2011). The relationship between trauma, post-migration problems and the psychological well-being of refugees and asylum seekers. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57(2), 107–119. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chung, R. C., & Kagawa-Singer, M. (1993). Predictors of psychological distress among Southeast Asian refugees. Social Science & Medicine, 36(5), 631–639. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Craig, C. D., Sossou, M.-A., Schnak, M., & Essex, H. (2008). Complicated grief and its relationship to mental health and well-being among Bosnian refugees after resettlement in the United States: Implications for practice, policy, and research. Traumatology, 14(4), 103–115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidson, J., Foa, E. B., Blank, A. B., Brett, E. A., Fairbank, J., Green, B. L., et al. (1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Frances, H. A. Pincus, R. Ross, M. B. First, & W. W. Davis (Eds.), DSM-IV sourcebook (pp. 577–606). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  20. Delic-Ovcina, L. (2010). The case of adult Bosnian Muslim male refugees in Chicago: Current health behavior outcomes and PTSD symptomatology. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from
  21. Fazel, M., Wheeler, J., & Danesh, J. (2005). Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: A systematic review. Lancet, 365(9467), 1309–1314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Filges, T., Montgomery, E., & Kastrup, M. (2016). The impact of detention on the health of asylum seekers: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 1–16.
  23. Forbes, D., Alkemade, N., Nickerson, A., Bryant, R. A., Creamer, M., Silove, D., … O, Donnell, M. (2016). Prediction of late-onset psychiatric disorder in survivors of severe injury: Findings of a latent transition analysis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(6), 807–812.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Freedman, J. (2016). Sexual and gender-based violence against refugee women: A hidden aspect of the refugee “crisis”. Reproductive Health Matters, 24(47), 18–26. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gorst-Unsworth, C., & Goldenberg, E. (1998). Psychological sequelae of torture and organised violence suffered by refugees from Iraq. Trauma-related factors compared with social factors in exile. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 172(1), 90–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Haldane, J., & Nickerson, A. (2016). The impact of interpersonal and noninterpersonal trauma on psychological symptoms in refugees: The moderating role of gender and trauma type. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29(5), 457–465. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hecker, T., Fetz, S., Ainamani, H., & Elbert, T. (2015). The cycle of violence: Associations between exposure to violence, trauma-related symptoms and aggression—Findings from Congolese refugees in Uganda. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(5), 448–455. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Helweg-Larsen, K., & Bøving Larsen, H. (2006). The prevalence of unwanted and unlawful sexual experiences reported by Danish adolescents: Results from a national youth survey in 2002. Acta Paediatrica, 95(10), 1270–1276. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Herlihy, J., & Turner, S. W. (2007). Asylum claims and memory of trauma: Sharing our knowledge. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191(1), 3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hinton, D. E., Nickerson, A., & Bryant, R. A. (2011). Worry, worry attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian refugees: A path analysis investigation. Social Science & Medicine, 72(11), 1817–1825. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hocking, D. C., Kennedy, G. A., & Sundram, S. (2015a). Mental disorders in asylum seekers: The role of the refugee determination process and employment. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 203(1), 28–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hocking, D. C., Kennedy, G. A., & Sundram, S. (2015b). Social factors ameliorate psychiatric disorders in community-based asylum seekers independent of visa status. Psychiatry Research, 230(2), 628–636. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hollander, A.-C., Dal, H., Lewis, G., Magnusson, C., Kirkbride, J. B., & Dalman, C. (2016). Refugee migration and risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: Cohort study of 1.3 million people in Sweden. BMJ, 353, i2865. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jaranson, J. M., Butcher, J., Halcon, L., Johnson, D. R., Robertson, C., Savik, K., … Westermeyer, J. (2004). Somali and Oromo refugees: Correlates of torture and trauma history. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4), 591–598.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Kartal, D., & Kiropoulos, L. (2016). Effects of acculturative stress on PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms among refugees resettled in Australia and Austria. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7(1), 28711. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keygnaert, I., Dialmy, A., Manço, A., Keygnaert, J., Vettenburg, N., Roelens, K., & Temmerman, M. (2014). Sexual violence and sub-Saharan migrants in Morocco: A community-based participatory assessment using respondent driven sampling. Globalization and Health, 10(1), 32. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim, I. (2016). Beyond trauma: Post-resettlement factors and mental health outcomes among Latino and Asian refugees in the United States. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 18(4), 740–748. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laban, C. J., Gernaat, H. B. P. E., Komproe, I. H., Schreuders, B. A., & de Jong, J. T. V. M. (2004). Impact of a long asylum procedure on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(12), 843–851. Retrieved from CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laban, C. J., Gernaat, H. B. P. E., Komproe, I. H., van der Tweel, I., & de Jong, J. T. V. M. (2005). Postmigration living problems and common psychiatric disorders in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(12), 825–832. Retrieved from CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Laban, C. J., Komproe, I. H., Gernaat, H. B. P. E., & de Jong, J. T. V. M. (2008). The impact of a long asylum procedure on quality of life, disability and physical health in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(7), 507–515. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lamkaddem, M., Stronks, K., Devillé, W. D., Olff, M., Gerritsen, A. A., & Essink-Bot, M.-L. (2014). Course of post-traumatic stress disorder and health care utilisation among resettled refugees in the Netherlands. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 90. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Li, S. S. Y., Liddell, B. J., & Nickerson, A. (2016). The relationship between post-migration stress and psychological disorders in refugees and asylum seekers. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(9), 82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lie, B., Lavik, N. J., & Laake, P. (2001). Traumatic events and psychological symptoms in a non-clinical refugee population in Norway. Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(3), 276–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lindert, J., von Ehrenstein, O. S., Priebe, S., Mielck, A., & Brähler, E. (2009). Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees – A systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 69(2), 246–257. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marshall, G. N., Schell, T. L., Elliott, M. N., Berthold, S. M., & Chun, C. A. (2005). Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States. JAMA, 294(5), 571–579.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. May, S., Rapee, R. M., Coello, M., Momartin, S., & Aroche, J. (2014). Mental health literacy among refugee communities: Differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(5), 757–769. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Miller, K. E., & Rasmussen, A. (2010). War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: Bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Social Science & Medicine, 70(1), 7–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miller, K. E., Weine, S. M., Ramic, A., Brkic, N., Bjedic, Z. D., Smajkic, A., … Worthington, G. (2002). The relative contribution of war experiences and exile-related stressors to levels of psychological distress among Bosnian refugees. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(5), 377–387. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Mölsä, M., Kuittinen, S., Tiilikainen, M., Honkasalo, M.-L., & Punamäki, R.-L. (2016). Mental health among older refugees: The role of trauma, discrimination, and religiousness. Aging & Mental Health, 21(8), 829–837. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Momartin, S., Silove, D., Manicavasagar, V., & Steel, Z. (2004). Comorbidity of PTSD and depression: Associations with trauma exposure, symptom severity and functional impairment in Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80(2), 231–238. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Morina, N., & Ford, J. D. (2008). Complex sequelae of psychological trauma among kosovar civilian war victims. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 54(5), 425–436. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Morina, N., Schnyder, U., Schick, M., Nickerson, A., & Bryant, R. A. (2016). Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(12), 1161–1168. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Nickerson, A., Bryant, R. A., Steel, Z., Silove, D., & Brooks, R. (2010). The impact of fear for family on mental health in a resettled Iraqi refugee community. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(4), 229–235. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Nickerson, A., Cloitre, M., Bryant, R. A., Schnyder, U., Morina, N., & Schick, M. (2016). The factor structure of complex posttraumatic stress disorder in traumatized refugees. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7(1), 33253. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Nickerson, A., Steel, Z., Bryant, R., Brooks, R., & Silove, D. (2011). Change in visa status amongst Mandaean refugees: Relationship to psychological symptoms and living difficulties. Psychiatry Research, 187(1), 267–274. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Nygaard, M., Sonne, C., & Carlsson, J. (2017). Secondary psychotic features in refugees diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder: A retrospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 5. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Osman, F., Klingberg-Allvin, M., Flacking, R., & Schön, U.-K. (2016). Parenthood in transition – Somali-born parents’ experiences of and needs for parenting support programmes. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 16(1), 7. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Palić, S., Carlsson, J., Armour, C., & Elklit, A. (2015). Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 69(4), 307–314. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Palić, S., & Elklit, A. (2014). Personality dysfunction and complex posttraumatic stress disorder among chronically traumatized Bosnian refugees. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 202(2), 111–118. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Palić, S., Kappel, M. L., Nielsen, M. S., Carlsson, J., & Bech, P. (2014). Comparison of psychiatric disability on the health of nation outcome scales (HoNOS) in resettled traumatized refugee outpatients and Danish inpatients. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 330. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Palić, S., Zerach, G., Shevlin, M., Zeligman, Z., Elklit, A., & Solomon, Z. (2016). Evidence of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) across populations with prolonged trauma of varying interpersonal intensity and ages of exposure. Psychiatry Research, 246, 692–699. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Raj, A., & Silverman, J. (2002). Violence against immigrant women. Violence Against Women, 8(3), 367–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rees, S., & Pease, B. (2007). Domestic violence in refugee families in Australia. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 5(2), 1–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan. (2015). 3RP regional progress report. Retrieved from
  65. Riber, K. (2015a). Attachment, complex trauma, and psychotherapy – A clinical study of the significance of attachment in adult Arabic-speaking refugees with PTSD. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  66. Riber, K. (2015b). Attachment organization in Arabic-speaking refugees with post traumatic stress disorder. Attachment & Human Development, 18(2), 154–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Robjant, K., Hassan, R., & Katona, C. (2009). Mental health implications of detaining asylum seekers: Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(4), 306–312. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rohlof, H. G., Knipscheer, J. W., & Kleber, R. J. (2014). Somatization in refugees: A review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(11), 1793–1804. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Savic, M., Chur-Hansen, A., Mahmood, M. A., & Moore, V. M. (2016). ‘We don’t have to go and see a special person to solve this problem’: Trauma, mental health beliefs and processes for addressing ‘mental health issues’ among Sudanese refugees in Australia. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(1), 76–83. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Schock, K., Rosner, R., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2015). Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6(1), 26286. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Schweitzer, R., Melville, F., Steel, Z., & Lacherez, P. (2006). Trauma, post-migration living difficulties, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment in resettled Sudanese refugees. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(2), 179–187. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Silove, D. (2013). The ADAPT model: A conceptual framework for mental health and psychosocial programming in post conflict settings. Intervention, 11(3), 237–248. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Silove, D., Austin, P., & Steel, Z. (2007). No refuge from terror: The impact of detention on the mental health of trauma-affected refugees seeking asylum in Australia. Transcultural Psychiatry, 44(3), 359–393. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Silove, D., Brooks, R., Steel, C. R., Steel, Z., Hewage, K., Rodger, J., & Soosay, I. (2009). Explosive anger as a response to human rights violations in post-conflict Timor-Leste. Social Science & Medicine, 69(5), 670–677. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Silove, D., Sinnerbrink, I., Field, A., Manicavasagar, V., & Steel, Z. (1997). Anxiety, depression and PTSD in asylum-seekers: Assocations with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 170(4), 351–357. Retrieved from CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Silove, D., Steel, Z., & Watters, C. (2000). Policies of deterrence and the mental health of asylum seekers. JAMA, 284(5), 604–611. Retrieved from CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Slewa-Younan, S., Mond, J. M., Bussion, E., Melkonian, M., Mohammad, Y., Dover, H., … Jorm, A. F. (2015). Psychological trauma and help seeking behaviour amongst resettled Iraqi refugees in attending English tuition classes in Australia. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 9(1), 5. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Smid, G. E., Lensvelt-Mulders, G. J. L. M., Knipscheer, J. W., Gersons, B. P. R., & Kleber, R. J. (2011). Late-onset PTSD in unaccompanied refugee minors: Exploring the predictive utility of depression and anxiety symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 742–755. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sonne, C. (2016). Trauma-affected refugees: Pharmacological treatment and predictors of treatment outcome. Odense, Denmark: University of Southern Denmark.Google Scholar
  80. Sonne, C., Carlsson, J., Bech, P., Vindbjerg, E., Mortensen, E. L., & Elklit, A. (2016). Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7(1), 30907. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Spiller, T. R., Schick, M., Schnyder, U., Bryant, R. A., Nickerson, A., & Morina, N. (2016). Somatisation and anger are associated with symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder in severely traumatised refugees and asylum seekers. Swiss Medical Weekly, 146, w14311. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Steel, Z., Chey, T., Silove, D., Marnane, C., Bryant, R. A., & Van, O. M. (2009). Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 302(5), 537–549.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Steel, Z., Frommer, N., & Silove, D. (2004). Part I—The mental health impacts of migration: The law and its effects: Failing to understand: Refugee determination and the traumatized applicant. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 27(6), 511–528. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Steel, Z., Silove, D., Phan, T., & Bauman, A. (2002). Long-term effect of psychological trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia: A population-based study. Lancet, 360(9339), 1056–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stenmark, H., Guzey, I. C., Elbert, T., & Holen, A. (2014). Gender and offender status predicting treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 20803. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tay, A. K., Rees, S., Chen, J., Kareth, M., & Silove, D. (2015). The structure of post-traumatic stress disorder and complex post-traumatic stress disorder amongst West Papuan refugees. BMC Psychiatry, 15(1), 111. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Teodorescu, D.-S., Heir, T., Hauff, E., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Lien, L. (2012). Mental health problems and post-migration stress among multi-traumatized refugees attending outpatient clinics upon resettlement to Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(4), 316–332. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. United Nations. (2003). The Convention against torture and other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
  89. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2015). The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees. Retrieved from
  90. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2017). Left behind – Refugee education in crisis. Retrieved from
  91. Uribe Guajardo, M. G., Slewa-Younan, S., Smith, M., Eagar, S., & Stone, G. (2016). Psychological distress is influenced by length of stay in resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 10(1), 4. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Weine, S. M., Becker, D. F., Vojvoda, D., Hodzic, E., Sawyer, M., Hyman, L., … McGlashan, T. H. (1998). Individual change after genocide in Bosnian survivors of “ethnic cleansing”: Assessing personality dysfunction. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 147–153. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wright, A. M., Dhalimi, A., Lumley, M. A., Jamil, H., Pole, N., Arnetz, J. E., & Arnetz, B. B. (2016). Unemployment in Iraqi refugees: The interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(6), 564–570. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Competence Centre for Transcultural PsychiatryMental Health Centre Ballerup, Mental Health Services of the Capital Region of DenmarkCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations