Advertisement

Introduction to Cultural Services

  • Aad C. SmaalEmail author
  • Øivind Strand
Open Access
Chapter

Abstract

Cultural services of marine bivalves are of high value as they provide well-being in many different ways. These services are more difficult to quantify but provide a lot of qualities. Shell collectioning, shells as archives, community efforts for bivalve restoration and gardening are some cases of cultural services. Marine bivalves have been recognized as a carrier of a variety of cultures since pre-historic times.

Keywords

Shells Shell collection Gardening 

Cultural services are defined in the Millennium Assessment as the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems, such as cultural diversity, spiritual and religious values, knowledge systems, educational values, inspiration, aesthetic values, social relations, sense of place, cultural heritage values, recreation and ecotourism (Millennium Assessment 2005). For marine bivalves many examples exist of cultural services. Shells are well-known collector items. Collecting seashore shells is worldwide spread leisure activity, and an organised profession as well, in the framework of the scientific discipline of malacology. This links to marine bivalves as a source of knowledge. Shells as fossil records have information for evolutionary studies, and their mineral content can reflect past climatological events as long-term archives. Shells are widely used for decoration and in art. Educational programs and community involvement exist in bivalve restoration programs. Sea gardening of marine bivalves is an upcoming leisure activity. Hence cultural services link directly to social structures that provide the framework for the appreciation of these services. Nonmaterial services may be more difficult to quantify than the other services, yet the benefits for people go far beyond the material benefits, as it concerns the core of human life that is able to reflect on all different services of – in this case – the marine bivalves (Daniel et al. 2012). In this section some examples of cultural services are reviewed, from community activities in different forms to scientific application of shell archaeology.

References

  1. Daniel TC, Muhar A, Arnberger A, Aznar O, Boyd JW, Chan KMA, Costanza R, Elmqvist T, Flint CG, Gobster PH, Grêt-Regamey A, Lave R, Muhar S, Penker M, Ribe RG, Schauppenlehner T, Sikor T, Soloviy I, Spierenburg M, Taczanowska K, Tam J, von der Dunk A (2012) Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda. PNAS 109(23):8812–8819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human Well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this book are included in the book's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the book's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wageningen UR – Wageningen Marine Research (WMR)YersekeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture and FisheriesWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Marine ResearchBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations