Incorporation of Nanoparticles into Plant Nutrients: The Real Benefits

  • Edgar Vázquez-NúñezEmail author
  • Martha L. López-Moreno
  • Guadalupe de la Rosa Álvarez
  • Fabián Fernández-Luqueño


The nanosciences and nanotechnology have been the most novel and attractive fields in recent years; their applications have spread through different and diverse areas, i.e., medicine, chemistry, biology, agriculture, etc. In agriculture the possibilities for application and innovation are enormous, and these applications have resulted in essential improvements in central plant and crop aspects. The incorporation of nanoparticles into nutritional plants has increased the yield of nutrient values and also has played a vital role in developing improved systems for analyzing ecological conditions and increasing the capacity of crops to absorb nutrients or pesticides. This chapter discusses and summarizes some updated evidence regarding the effects of nanoparticles on the yield and quality of crops, and it highlights how nanoscience and nanotechnologies might revolutionize the nutrition of higher plants in the short term.


Crops Nanoparticles Nutrients Field trials Plant response 



Edgar Vázquez Núñez acknowledges financial support received through project ID PRODEP UGTO-PTC- 571 and thanks BV Furlong for her assistance. Guadalupe de la Rosa Álvarez acknowledges support received from Universidad de Guanajuato (DAIP-UG 1,014/2016, ETAPA 2; Dirección de Apoyo a la Investigación y al Posgrado; Rectoría Campus León). Martha López-Moreno and Fabián Fernández-Luqueño received no specific financial support for this work.

Competing interests The authors declare that they have not competing interests.


  1. Adhikari T, Kundu S, Rao AS (2013) Impact of SiO2 and Mo nano particles on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int J Agric Food Sci Technol 4:809–816Google Scholar
  2. Angus JF, Bowden JW, Keating BA (1993) Modelling nutrient responses in the field. In: Barrow NJ (ed) Plant nutrition: from genetic engineering to field practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp 59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antisari LV, Carbone S, Gati A, Vianello G, Nannipieri P (2015) Uptake and translocation of metals and nutrients in tomato grown in soil polluted with metal oxide (CeO2, Fe3O4, SnO2, TiO2) or metallic (Ag, Co, Ni) engineered nanoparticles. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:1841–1853. Scholar
  4. Arnold DI, Stout PR (1939) The essentiality of certain elements in minute quantity for plant with special reference to copper. Plant Physiol 14:371–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azeem B, KuShaari K, Man ZB, Basit A, Thanh TH (2014) Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer. J Control Release 181:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrios AC, Rico CM, Trujillo-Reyes J, Medina-Velo LA, Peralta-Videa JR, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2016) Effects of uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles, bulk cerium oxide, cerium acetate, and citric acid on tomato plants. Sci Total Environ 563–564:956–964. Scholar
  7. Behera SK, Shukla AK (2015) Spatial distribution of surface soil acidity, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon content and exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium in some cropped acid soils of India. Land Degrad Dev 26:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradfield SJ, Kumar P, White JC, Ebbs SD (2017) Zinc, copper, or cerium accumulation from metal oxide nanoparticles or ions in sweet potato: yield effects and projected dietary intake from consumption. Plant Physiol Biochem 110:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaudhry Q, Scotter M, Blackburn J, Ross B, Boxall A, Castle L, Aitken R, Watkins R (2008) Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. Food Addit Contam 25:241–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen D, Szostak P, Wei Z, Xiao R (2016) Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate. Sci Total Environ 539:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dasgupta N, Ranian S, Mundekkad D, Ramalingam C, Shanker R, Kumar A (2015) Nanotechnology in agro-food: from field to plate. Food Res Int 69:381–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davarpanah S, Tehranifar A, Davarynejad G, Abadía J, Khorasani R (2016) Effects of foliar applications of zinc and boron nano-fertilizers on pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Ardestani) fruit yield and quality. Sci Hortic 210:57–64. Scholar
  13. De la Rosa G, Garcia-Castaneda C, Vazquez-Nunez E, Alonso-Castro AJ, Basurto-Islas G, Mendoza A, Cruz-Jimenez G, Molina C (2017) Physiological and biochemical response of plants to engineered NMs: implications on future design. Plant Physiol Biochem 110:226–235Google Scholar
  14. Deepa M, Sudhakar P, Nagamadhuri KV, Reddy KB, Krishna TG, Prasad TNVKV (2015) First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique. Appl Nanosci 5:545–551. Scholar
  15. Delfani M, Firouzabadi MB, Farrokhi N, Makarian H (2014) Some physiological responses of black-eyed pea to iron and magnesium nanofertilizers. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45:11. Scholar
  16. Dimkpa CO, Bindraban PS (2017) Nanofertilizers: new products for the industry? J Agric Food Chem. Scholar
  17. Dobermann S, Cassman KG, Walters DT, Witt C (2005) Balancing short-term and long-term goals in nutrient management. Better Crops 89–4:16–18Google Scholar
  18. Duhan JS, Kumar R, Kumar N, Kaur P, Nehra K, Duhan S (2017) Nanotechnology: the new perspective in precision agriculture. Biotechnol Rep 15:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elsaesser A, Howard CV (2012) Toxicology of nanoparticles. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:129–137. Scholar
  20. Farrukh MA, Naseem F (2014) US Patent No. 8,911,526. US Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferguson RB, Nienaber JA, Eigenberg RA, Woodbury BL (2005) Long-term effects of sustained beef feedlot manure application on soil nutrients, corn silage yield, and nutrient uptake. J Environ Qual 34:1672–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fernández-Luqueño F, López-Valdez F, González-Rosas A, Miranda-Gómez JM (2016) Bionanotechnology for the food production: challenges and perspectives. In: Bustos-Vázquez MA, del Ángel-del Ángel JA (eds) Tecnología y desarrollo sustentable: avances en el aprovechamiento de recursos agroindustriales. Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas y Colofón, Mexico, pp 293–305Google Scholar
  23. Ghormade V, Deshpande MV, Paknikar KM (2011) Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants. Biotechnol Adv 29:792–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hassani A, Tajali AA, Mazinani SMH, Hassani M (2015) Studying the conventional chemical fertilizers and nano-fertilizer of iron, zinc, and potassium on quantitative yield of the medicinal plant of peppermint in Khuzestan. Int J Agric Innov Res 3:2319–1473Google Scholar
  25. Helper PK (2005) Calcium: a central regulator of plant growth and development. Plant Cell 17:2142–2155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herrick JE (2000) Soil quality: an indicator of sustainable land management? Appl Soil Ecol 15:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huang S, Wang L, Liu L, Hou Y, Li L (2015) Nanotechnology in agriculture, livestock, and aquaculture in China. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 35:369–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Iannone MF, Groppa MD, de Sousa ME, Fernández van Raap MB, Benavides MP (2017) Impact of magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) development: evaluation of oxidative damage. Environ Exp Bot 131:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Imada K, Sakai S, Kajihara H, Tanaka S, Ito S (2016) Magnesium oxide nanoparticles induce systemic resistance in tomato against bacterial wilt disease. Plant Pathol 65:551–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Iavicoli I, Leso V, Beezhold DH, Shvedova AA (2017) Nanotechnology in agriculture: opportunities, toxicological implications, and occupational risks. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 329:96–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Juan ZOU, Lu JW, Li YS, Li XK (2011) Regional evaluation of winter rapeseed response to K fertilization, K use efficiency, and critical level of soil K in the Yangtze River Valley. Agr Sci China 10:911–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khot LR, Sankaran S, Maja JM, Ehsani R, Schuster EW (2012) Applications of nanomaterials in agricultural production and crop protection: a review. Crop Prot 35:64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Knapp AK, Smith MD, Hobbie SE, Collins SL, Fahey TJ, Hansen GJA, Landis DA, La Pierre KJ, Melillo JM, Seastedt TR, Shaver GR, Webster JR (2012) Past, present, and future roles of long-term experiments in the LTER network. Bioscience 62:377–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kole C, Kole P, Randunu KM, Choudhary P, Podila R, Ke PC, Rao AM, Marcus RK (2013) Nanobiotechnology can boost crop production and quality: first evidence from increased plant biomass, fruit yield and phytomedicine content in bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Biotechnology 13:37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kottegoda N, Munaweera I, Madusanka N, Karunaratne V (2011) A green slow-release fertilizer composition based on urea-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles encapsulated wood. Curr Sci India 101:73–78Google Scholar
  36. Kottegoda N, Sandaruwan C, Priyadarshana G, Siriwardhana A, Rathnayake UA, Berugoda Arachchige DM, Kumarasinge AR, Dahanayake D, Karunaratne V, Amaratunga GA (2017) Urea–hydroxyapatite nanohybrids for slow release of nitrogen. ACS Nano 11:1214–1221. Scholar
  37. Le Bot J, Adamowicz S, Robin P (1998) Modelling plant nutrition of horticultural crops: a review. Sci Hortic 74:47–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. León-Silva S, Fernández-Luqueño F, López-Valdez F (2016) Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the environment: a review of potential risks on human and environmental health. Water Air Soil Pollut 227(9):306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li J, Hu J, Ma C, Wang Y, Wu C, Huang J, Xing B (2016) Uptake, translocation and physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide (γ-FeO) nanoparticles in corn (Zea mays L.). Chemosphere 159:326–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu R, Lal R (2014) Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max). Sci Rep 4:6. Scholar
  41. Liu R, Lal R (2017) Nanofertilizers. In: Encyclopedia of soil science, 3rd edn, pp 1511–1515. Scholar
  42. Liu XM, Zhang FD, Zhang SQ, He XS, Wang RF, Feng ZB, Wang YJ (2005) Responses of peanut to nano-calcium carbonate. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 11:385–389Google Scholar
  43. Liu XM, Feng ZB, Zhang FD, Zhang SQ, He XS (2006) Preparation and testing of cementing and coating nano-subnanocomposites of slow/controlled-release fertilizer. Agr Sci China 5:700–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu R, Zhang H, Lal R (2016) Effects of stabilized nanoparticles of copper, zinc, manganese, and iron oxides in low concentrations on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination: nanotoxicants or nanonutrients? Water Air Soil Pollut 227:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu SK, Han C, Liu JM, Li H (2017) Hydrothermal decomposition of potassium feldspar under alkaline conditions. RSC Adv 5:93301–93309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mala R, Celsia Arul Selvaraj R, Barathi Sundaram V, Blessina Siva Shanmuga Rajan R, Maheswari Gurusamy U (2017) Evaluation of nano structured slow release fertilizer on the soil fertility, yield and nutritional profile of Vigna radiata. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 11:50–62. Scholar
  47. Mandal A, Patra AK, Singh D, Swarup A, Masto RE (2007) Effect of long-term application of manure and fertilizer on biological and biochemical activities in soil during crop development stages. Bioresour Technol 98:3585–3592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Masclaux-Daubresse C, Chen Q, Havé M (2017) Regulation of nutrient recycling via autophagy. Curr Opin Plant Biol 39:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mashhadi S, Javadian H, Tyagi I, Agarwal S, Gupta VK (2016) The effect of Na2SO4 concentration in aqueous phase on the phase inversion temperature of lemon oil in water nano-emulsions. J Mol Liq 215:454–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Medina-Pérez G, Fernández-Luqueño F, Trejo-Téllez LI, López-Valdez F, Pampillón-González L (2018) Growth and development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) var. pinto Saltillo exposed to iron, titanium, and zinc oxide nanoparticles in an agricultural soil. Appl Ecol Environ Res 16(2):1883–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Medina-Pérez G, Fernández-Luqueño F, Vazquez-Nuñez E, López-Valdez F, Prieto-Mendez J, Madariaga-Navarrete A, Miranda-Arámbula M (in press) Remediation of polluted soils using nanotechnologies: environmental benefits and risks. Pol J Environ StudGoogle Scholar
  52. Mikhak A, Sohrabi A, Kassaee MZ, Feizian M (2017) Synthetic nanozeolite/nanohydroxyapatite as a phosphorus fertilizer for German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Ind Crop Prod 95:444–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moghaddasi S, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Karimzadeh F, Chaney RL (2013) Preparation of nano-particles from waste tire rubber and evaluation of their effectiveness as zinc source for cucumber in nutrient solution culture. Sci Hortic 160:398–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morales-Díaz AB, Ortega-Ortíz H, Juárez-Maldonado A, Cadenas-Pliego G, González-Morales S, Benavides-Mendoza A (2017) Application of nanoelements in plant nutrition and its impact in ecosystems. Nanosci Nanotechnol 8:1–13Google Scholar
  55. Mousavi SR, Shahsavari M, Rezaei M (2011) A general overview on manganese (Mn) importance for crops production. Aust J Appl Sci 5:1799–1803Google Scholar
  56. Mukherjee A, Peralta-Videa JR, Gardea-Torresdey J, White JC (2016) Effects and uptake of nanoparticles in plants. In: Xing B, Vecitis CD, Senesi N (eds) Engineered nanoparticles and the environment: biophysicochemical processes and toxicity. Wiley, Hoboken. Scholar
  57. Murphy LS, Ellis R Jr, Adriano DC (1981) Phosphorus-micronutrient interaction effects on crop production. J Plant Nutr 3(1–4):593–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nelson NO, Janke RR (2007) Phosphorus sources and management in organic production systems. HortTechnology 17:442–454Google Scholar
  59. Pilon-Smits EA, Quinn CF, Tapken W, Malagoli M, Schiavon M (2009) Physiological functions of beneficial elements. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pradhan S, Patra P, Das S, Chandra S, Mitra S, Dey KK, Akbar S, Palit P, Goswami A (2013) Photochemical modulation of biosafe manganese nanoparticles on Vigna radiata: a detailed molecular, biochemical, and biophysical study. Environ Sci Technol 47:13122–13131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Prasad R, Kumar V, Prasad KS (2014) Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: present concerns and future aspects. Afr J Biotechnol 13:705–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Qiao D, Liu H, Yu L, Bao X, Simon GP, Petinakis E, Chen L (2016) Preparation and characterization of slow-release fertilizer encapsulated by starch-based super absorbent polymer. Carbohydr Polym 147:146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rajonee AA, Zaman S, Huq SMI (2017) Preparation, characterization and evaluation of efficacy of phosphorus and potassium incorporated nano fertilizer. Adv Nanopart 6:62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ratnikova TA, Podila R, Rao AM, Taylor AG (2015) Tomato seed coat permeability to selected carbon nanomaterials and enhancement of germination and seedling growth. Sci World J 2015:419215. Scholar
  65. Richardson AE (2001) Prospects for using soil microorganisms to improve the acquisition of phosphorus by plants. Funct Plant Biol 28:897–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rico CM, Johnson MG, Marcus MA, Andersen CP (2017) Intergenerational responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles exposure. Environ Sci Nano 4:700–711. Scholar
  67. Rostami Ajirloo A, Shaaban M, Rahmati Motlagh Z (2015) Effect of K nano-fertilizer and N bio-fertilizer on yield and yield components of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res 3:138–143Google Scholar
  68. Rothamsted Research (2006) Rothamsted research guide to the classical and other long-term experiments, datasets and sample archive. Premier Printers, Bury St. EdmundsGoogle Scholar
  69. Rui M, Ma C, Hao Y, Guo J, Rui Y, Tang X, Zhao Q, Fan X, Zhang Z, Hou T, Zhu S (2016) Iron oxide nanoparticles as a potential iron fertilizer for peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Front Plant Sci 7:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saad AOM, El-Kholy MA (2000) Response of some faba bean to phosphorous and magnesium fertilization. Egypt J Agron 22:19–32Google Scholar
  71. Sabir A, Yazar K, Sabir F, Kara Z, Yazici MA, Goksu N (2014) Vine growth, yield, berry quality attributes and leaf nutrient content of grapevines as influenced by seaweed extract (Ascophyllum nodosum) and nanosize fertilizer pulverizations. Sci Hortic 175:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sainju UM, Lenssen A, Caesar-Tonthat T, Waddell J (2006) Tillage and crop rotation effects on dryland soil and residue carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:668–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sharonova NL, Yapparov AK, Khisamutdinov NS, Ezhkova AM, Yapparov IA, Ezhkov VO, Degtyareva IA, Babynin EV (2015) Nanostructured water–phosphorite suspension is a new promising fertilizer. Nanotechnol Russ 10(7–8):65–661. Scholar
  74. Shen J, Yuan L, Zhang J, Li H, Bai Z, Chen X, Zhang W, Zhang F (2011) Phosphorus dynamics: from soil to plant. Plant Physiol 156:997–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Singh AL, Jat RS, Chaudhari V, Bariya H, Sharma SJ (2010) Toxicities and tolerance of mineral elements boron, cobalt, molybdenum and nickel in crop plants. Plant Stress 4:31–56Google Scholar
  76. Singh A, Singh NB, Hussain I, Singh H, Yadav V, Singh SC (2016) Green synthesis of nano zinc oxide and evaluation of its impact on germination and metabolic activity of Solanum lycopersicum. J Biotechnol 233:84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stark CH, Richards KG (2008) The continuing challenge of agricultural nitrogen loss to the environment in the context of global change and advancing research. Dyn Soil Dyn Plant 2:1–12Google Scholar
  78. Subbaiya R, Priyanka M, Selvam MM (2012) Formulation of green nano-fertilizer to enhance the plant growth through slow and sustained release of nitrogen. J Pharm Res 5:5178–5183Google Scholar
  79. Suresh S, Karthikeyan S, Jayamoorthy K (2016) Effect of bulk and nano-Fe2O3 particles on peanut plant leaves studied by Fourier transform infrared spectral studies. J Adv Res 7:739–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tarafdar J, Rathore I, Thomas E (2015) Enhancing nutrient use efficiency through nano technological interventions. Indian J Fertil 11:46–51Google Scholar
  81. Taran NY, Gonchar OM, Lopatko KG, Batsmanova LM, Patyka MV, Volkogon MV (2014) The effect of colloidal solution of molybdenum nanoparticles on the microbial composition in rhizosphere of Cicer arietinum L. Nanoscale Res Lett 9:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Taran N, Batsmanova L, Kosyk O, Smirnov O, Kovalenko M, Honchar L, Okanenko A (2016) Colloidal nanomolybdenum influence upon the antioxidative reaction of chickpea plants (Cicer arietinum L.). Nanoscale Res Lett 11:476–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Usten NH, Yokas AL, Saygili H (2006) Influence of potassium and calcium level on severity of tomato pith necrosis and yield of green house tomatoes. ISHS Acta Hortic 808:345–350Google Scholar
  84. Verma TS, Minhas RS (1987) Zinc and phosphorus interaction in a wheat–maize cropping system. Fert Res 13:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Von Liebig J (1841) The organic chemistry in its application on agriculture and physiology. Velag Viehweg, Braunschweig 167 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang Y, Hu J, Dai Z, Li J, Huang J (2016) In vitro assessment of physiological changes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) upon iron oxide nanoparticles exposure. Plant Physiol Biochem 108:353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. White JW, Broadley MR (2009) Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets: iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium, and iodine. New Phytol 182:49–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yoon SJ, Kwak JI, Lee WM, Holden PA (2014) Zinc oxide nanoparticles delay soybean development: a standard soil microcosm study. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 100:131–137. Scholar
  89. Yugandhar P, Savithramma N (2013) Green synthesis of calcium carbonate nanoparticles and their effects on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Int J Adv Res 1:89–103Google Scholar
  90. Zhao L, Hu J, Huang Y, Wang H, Adeleye A, Ortiz C, Keller AA (2017) 1H NMR and GCeMS based metabolomics reveal nano-Cu altered cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit nutritional supply. Plant Physiol Biochem 110:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhu G, Wang S, Wang Y, Wang C, Risgaard-Peterse N, Jetten MS, Yin C (2011) Anaerobic ammonia oxidation in a fertilized paddy soil. ISME J 5:1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edgar Vázquez-Núñez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martha L. López-Moreno
    • 2
    • 3
  • Guadalupe de la Rosa Álvarez
    • 2
    • 5
  • Fabián Fernández-Luqueño
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedicine Engineering, Sciences and Engineering DivisionUniversity of GuanajuatoLeon, GuanajuatoMexico
  2. 2.UC Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN)The University of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA
  3. 3.Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of Puerto Rico at MayaguezMayaguezPuerto Rico
  4. 4.Sustainability of Natural Resources and Energy ProgramsCinvestav-SaltilloRamos ArizpeMexico
  5. 5.Sciences and Engineering DivisionUniveristy of GuanajuatoLeón, GuanajuatoMexico

Personalised recommendations