Skip to main content

X-ray Imaging

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNIP,volume 11111)


In this chapter, the physical principles of X-rays are introduced. We start with a general definition of X-rays compared to other well known rays, e. g., the visible light. In Sec. 7.2, we will learn how X-rays can be generated and how they can be characterized with respect to their energy. The most relevant concept to understand how X-ray imaging works is the behavior of X-rays when they interact with matter.


  1. Thorsten M. Buzug. Computed Tomography: From Photon Statistics to Modern Cone-Beam CT. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2008, p. 536. isbn: 3642072577

    Google Scholar 

  2. PM De Groot. “Image intensifier design and specifications". In: Proc. Summer School on Specification, Acceptance Testing and Quality Control of Diagnostic X-ray Imaging Equipment (1994), pp. 429–60

    Google Scholar 

  3. Olaf Dössel. Bildgebende Verfahren in der Medizin - Von der Technik zur medizinischen Anwendung. Vol. 1. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2000

    Google Scholar 

  4. Jeff Fessler. Lecture Notes / X-ray imaging: noise and SNR. 2009. url:$~$fessler/course/516/l/c6-noise.pdf

  5. Steven Fruitsmaak. Right atrial and right ventricular leads as visualized under X-ray during a pacemaker implant procedure. The atrial lead is the curved one making a U shape in the upper left part of the figure. 2008. url: (visited on 11/04/2014)

  6. Erich Krestel. “Imaging systems for medical diagnostics". In: (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Benedikt Lorch et al. “Projection and Reconstruction-Based Noise Filtering Methods in Cone Beam CT". In: Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2015. Ed. by H. Handels. Lübeck, 2015, pp. 59–64

    Google Scholar 

  8. Andreas Maier and Rebecca Fahrig. “GPU Denoising for Computed Tomography". In: Graphics Processing Unit-Based High Performance Computing in Radiation Therapy. Ed. by Xun Jia and Jiang Steve. 1st ed. Vol. 1. Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2015. isbn: 978-1-4822-4478- 6. doi:

  9. Andreas Maier et al. “Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT". In: Medical Physics 38.11 (2011), pp. 5896–5909. doi:

  10. Jihong Wang and Timothy J. Blackburn. “The AAPM/RSNA Physics Tutorial for Residents". In: RadioGraphics 20.5 (2000), pp. 1471–1477

    Google Scholar 

  11. Wikimedia. Broken fixed arm. 2006. url: (visited on 11/04/2014)

  12. Wei Zhao and JA Rowlands. “X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium:Feasibility of a flat panel self-scanned detector for digital radiology":. In: Medical Physics 22.10 (1995), pp. 1595–1604

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andreas Maier .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

This chapter is published under an open access license. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section either on this page or in the PDF for details of this license and what re-use is permitted. If your intended use exceeds what is permitted by the license or if you are unable to locate the licence and re-use information, please contact the Rights and Permissions team.

Copyright information

© 2018 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Berger, M., Yang, Q., Maier, A. (2018). X-ray Imaging. In: Maier, A., Steidl, S., Christlein, V., Hornegger, J. (eds) Medical Imaging Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 11111. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-96519-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-96520-8

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)