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Augmentation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Synecoculture: Theory and Practice in Temperate and Tropical Zones

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Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 22)

Abstract

Natural vegetation forms a complex fractal structure of ecological niche distribution, in contrast to human-managed monoculture landscape. For the sustainable management of diverse plant genetic resources, including crop and wild species, the introduction of such ecologically optimum formation is important to compensate for the biodiversity loss and achieve higher ecological state that can provide sufficient ecosystem services for increasing human population. In this chapter, we first develop a conceptual and theoretical framework for the implementation and management of self-organized niche structures and develop an adaptive strategy of sustainable food production resulting from the statistical nature of ecosystem dynamics called power law. Second, we construct the integrative measures for the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in ecological optimum that incorporate both phylogenic and phase diversities as important functional indicators of plant communities. This formalization leads to the extension of conventional concepts of biodiversity and ecosystem services toward human-assisted operational ecological diversity and utility and provides the definition and property of potentially realizable and utilizable plant genetic resources in the augmented ecosystems beyond natural preservation state. Finally, case studies from the synecoculture project in temperate and tropical zones are reported in reference to the developed framework, which draws out legislative requirements for future protection and propagation of plant genetic resources. The necessity of supportive information and communication technologies is also demonstrated. This article contains theoretical foundation and the results of the proof of concept experiments that are essential to establish a novel developmental and legislative framework for the sustainable use of plant genetic resources, overarching the protection of the natural environment and agricultural production mainstreaming biodiversity.

Keywords

Plant genetic resources (PGR) Ecological optimum Power-law distribution Synecoculture Anthropogenic augmentation of ecosystems Operational species diversity Adaptive diversification Ecological recapitulation principles Open complex systems Complexity measure Information and communication technologies (ICT) Traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples and local communities Aichi biodiversity targets United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs) The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Kousaku Ohta and Tatsuya Kawaoka contributed as a research assistant at Sony CSL. Experiments of synecoculture were conducted in collaboration with in Japan: Takashi Otsuka, Sakura Shizen Jyuku; in Taiwan: Kai-Yuan Lin, Asian SustaInable Agriculture Research and production Center (ASIARC); and in Burkina Faso: André Tindano, Association de Recherche et de Formation du Développement Rural Autogéré (AFIDRA) and Centre Africain de Recherche et de Formation en Synécoculture (CARFS).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc.TokyoJapan

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