Spatial Distribution of Local Landmarks in Route-Based Sketch Maps

  • Vanessa Joy A. AnactaEmail author
  • Rui Li
  • Heinrich Löwen
  • Marcelo De Lima Galvao
  • Angela Schwering
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11034)


Landmarks are important elements in route instructions communicated for wayfinding in unfamiliar environments. This paper aims to investigate the distribution of local landmarks in human sketch maps provided for wayfinding purpose. We investigated sets of route instructions given by student participants who were asked to give directions in environments that they are very familiar with to someone unfamiliar. These environments differ in size as well as their relation to city centers. In particular, one route goes into the city, one route goes through the city center, and the third route ranges between two cities. The results show that local landmarks are distributed differently in each route and showing high density of landmarks at some portions of the route. The study further clarifies the distribution of landmarks along routes with relation to the length of the route. It also contributes to the work concerning the cognitive aspects of wayfinding with a specific focus on the distribution of landmarks in route instructions.


Local landmarks Route instructions Sketch maps Wayfinding 



We acknowledge the support of the German Research Foundation (DFG) with project number SCHW 1372/15-1 and the European Research Council (ERC Starting Grant No. 637645).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa Joy A. Anacta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rui Li
    • 2
  • Heinrich Löwen
    • 1
  • Marcelo De Lima Galvao
    • 1
  • Angela Schwering
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for GeoinformaticsUniversity of MuensterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Department of Geography and PlanningUniversity of Albany, SUNYAlbanyUSA

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