Spatial Distribution of Local Landmarks in Route-Based Sketch Maps
Landmarks are important elements in route instructions communicated for wayfinding in unfamiliar environments. This paper aims to investigate the distribution of local landmarks in human sketch maps provided for wayfinding purpose. We investigated sets of route instructions given by student participants who were asked to give directions in environments that they are very familiar with to someone unfamiliar. These environments differ in size as well as their relation to city centers. In particular, one route goes into the city, one route goes through the city center, and the third route ranges between two cities. The results show that local landmarks are distributed differently in each route and showing high density of landmarks at some portions of the route. The study further clarifies the distribution of landmarks along routes with relation to the length of the route. It also contributes to the work concerning the cognitive aspects of wayfinding with a specific focus on the distribution of landmarks in route instructions.
KeywordsLocal landmarks Route instructions Sketch maps Wayfinding
We acknowledge the support of the German Research Foundation (DFG) with project number SCHW 1372/15-1 and the European Research Council (ERC Starting Grant No. 637645).
- 4.Denis, M.: The description of routes: a cognitive approach to the production of spatial discourse. Cahiers de psychol. cognit. 16(4), 409–458 (1997)Google Scholar
- 12.Dale, R., Geldof, S., Prost, J.-P.: Generating more natural route descriptions. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Australasian, pp. 41–48 (2002)Google Scholar
- 14.Elias, B.: Determination of landmarks and reliability criteria for landmarks (2003)Google Scholar
- 16.Rehrl, K., Leitinger, S., Gartner, G., Ortag, F.: An analysis of direction and motion concepts in verbal descriptions of route choices. In: Hornsby, K.S., Claramunt, C., Denis, M., Ligozat, G. (eds.) COSIT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5756, pp. 471–488. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03832-7_29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Schwering, A., Li, R., Anacta, V.: orientation information in different forms of route instructions. In: Danny Vandenbroucke, B. (ed.) Proceedings on The 16th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science (2013)Google Scholar
- 30.Dräger, M., Koller, A.: Generation of landmark-based navigation instructions from open-source data. In: Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Stroudsburg, PA, USA, pp. 757–766 (2012)Google Scholar
- 31.Rousell, A., Hahmann, S., Bakillah, M., Mobasheri, A.: Extraction of landmarks from OpenStreetMap for use in navigational instructions. In: Proceedings of the 18th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Lisbon, Portugal (2015)Google Scholar