Climate Change Impacts on Small Island States: Ecosystem Services Risks and Opportunities
- 1.5k Downloads
This chapter highlights how ecosystem-based adaptation—informed conservation and management practices that help people adapt to climate change—can enhance the resilience of island communities and reduce ecosystem service risks. On islands, terrestrial, coastal, and marine ecosystems are highly interconnected and provide important ecosystem services to local communities. However, ecosystems are also severely impacted by climate change, natural climate patterns, and human action. Using a ridge-to-reef approach allows accounting for ecosystem connectivity in adaptation planning and policies. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) are described as a policy option for securing the ecosystem services of island watersheds. Strategies of ecosystem-based adaptation are not only an option for Small Island States, but also for many situations in developed or developing countries.
KeywordsEcosystem service risk Climate change Ecosystem-based adaptation Small island states
The Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ partner with The Nature Conservancy (TNC) in the project “Building the Resilience of Communities and their Ecosystems to the Impacts of Climate Change in Micronesia and Melanesia,” financed by the International Climate Initiative of the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB).
- 1.United Nations. International year of small island developing states 2014. United Nations, 2014. http://www.un.org/en/events/islands2014/didyouknow.shtml. Accessed 11 Aug 2016.
- 2.Nurse LA, McLean RF, Agard J, Briguglio LP, Duvat-Magnan V, Pelesikoti N, et al. Small islands. In: Barros VR, Field CB, editors. Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2014. p. 1613–54.Google Scholar
- 3.Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A. Reefs at risk revisited. Washington DC: World Resources Institute; 2011.Google Scholar
- 5.Cressey D. Coral crisis: great barrier reef bleaching is “the worst we’ve ever seen”. Nature. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2016.19747.
- 6.Wilkinson C. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2008. Townsville, Australia: Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre; 2008.Google Scholar
- 9.Colls A, Ash N, Ikkala N. Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a natural response to climate change. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; 2009.Google Scholar
- 14.Garcia JG. Feasibility for payments for ecosystem services in lorengau watershed. Manus: Papua New Guinea; 2011.Google Scholar