Fast Numerical Program Analysis with Reinforcement Learning

Open Access
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10981)


We show how to leverage reinforcement learning (RL) in order to speed up static program analysis. The key insight is to establish a correspondence between concepts in RL and those in analysis: a state in RL maps to an abstract program state in analysis, an action maps to an abstract transformer, and at every state, we have a set of sound transformers (actions) that represent different trade-offs between precision and performance. At each iteration, the agent (analysis) uses a policy learned offline by RL to decide on the transformer which minimizes loss of precision at fixpoint while improving analysis performance. Our approach leverages the idea of online decomposition (applicable to popular numerical abstract domains) to define a space of new approximate transformers with varying degrees of precision and performance. Using a suitably designed set of features that capture key properties of abstract program states and available actions, we then apply Q-learning with linear function approximation to compute an optimized context-sensitive policy that chooses transformers during analysis. We implemented our approach for the notoriously expensive Polyhedra domain and evaluated it on a set of Linux device drivers that are expensive to analyze. The results show that our approach can yield massive speedups of up to two orders of magnitude while maintaining precision at fixpoint.

1 Introduction

Static analyzers that scale to real-world programs yet maintain high precision are difficult to design. Recent approaches to attacking this problem have focused on two complementary methods. On one hand is work that designs clever algorithms that exploits the special structure of particular abstract domains to speed up analysis [5, 10, 15, 16, 20, 21]. These works tackle specific types of analyses but the gains in performance can be substantial. On the other hand are approaches that introduce creative mechanisms to trade off precision loss for gains in speed [9, 12, 18, 19]. While promising, these methods typically do not take into account the particular abstract states arising during analysis which determine the precision of abstract transformers (e.g., join), resulting in suboptimal analysis precision or performance. A key challenge then is coming up with effective and general approaches that can decide where and how to lose precision during analysis for best tradeoff between performance and precision.

Our Work. We address the above challenge by offering a new approach for dynamically losing precision based on reinforcement learning (RL) [24]. The key idea is to learn a policy that determines when and how the analyzer should lose the least precision at an abstract state to achieve best performance gains. Towards that, we establish a correspondence between concepts in static analysis and RL, which demonstrates that RL is a viable approach for handling choices in the inner workings of a static analyzer.

To illustrate the basic idea, imagine that a static analyzer has at each program state two available abstract transformers: the precise but slow \(T_p\) and the fast but less precise \(T_f\). Ideally, the analyzer would decide adaptively at each step on the best choice that maximizes speed while producing a final result of sufficient precision. Such a policy is difficult to craft by hand and hence we propose to leverage RL to discover the policy automatically.

To explain the connection with RL intuitively, we think of abstract states and transformers as analogous to states of a Go board and moves made by the Go player, respectively. In Go, the goal is to learn a policy that at each state decides on the next player action (transformer to use) which maximizes the chances of eventually winning the game (obtaining a precise fixpoint while improving performance in our case). Note that the reward to be maximized in Go is long-term and not an immediate gain in position, which is similar to iterative static analysis. To learn the policy with RL, one typically extracts a set of features \(\phi \) from a given state and action, and uses those features to define a so-called Q-function, which is then learned, determining the desired policy.

In the example above, a learned policy would determine at each step whether to choose action \(T_p\) or \(T_f\). To do that, for a given state and action, the analyzer computes the value of the Q-function using the features \(\phi \). Querying the Q-function returns the suggested action from that state. Eventually, such a policy would ideally lead to a fixpoint of sufficient precision but be computed quicker.

While the overall connection between static analysis and reinforcement learning is conceptually clean, the details of making it work in practice pose significant challenges. The first is the design of suitable approximations to actually be able to gain performance when precision is lost. The second is the design of features \(\phi \) that are cheap to compute yet expressive enough to capture key properties of abstract states. Finally, a suitable reward function combining both precision and performance is needed. We show how to solve these challenges for Polyhedra analysis.

Main Contributions. Our main contributions are:
  • A space of sound, approximate Polyhedra transformers spanning different precision/performance trade-offs. The new transformers combine online decomposition with different constraint removal and merge strategies for approximations (Sect. 3).

  • A set of feature functions which capture key properties of abstract states and transformers, yet are efficient to extract (Sect. 4).

  • A complete instantiation of RL for Polyhedra analysis based on Q-learning with linear function approximation (i.e., actions, reward function, Q-function).

  • An end-to-end implementation and evaluation of our approach. Given a training dataset of programs, we first learn a policy (based on the Q-function) over analysis runs of these programs. We then use the resulting policy during analysis of new, unseen programs. The experimental results on a set of realistic programs (e.g., Linux device drivers) show that our RL-based Polyhedra analysis achieves substantial speed-ups (up to 515x) over a heavily optimized state-of-the-art Polyhedra library.

We believe the reinforcement learning based approach outlined in this work can be applied to speed up other program analyzers (beyond Polyhedra).

2 Reinforcement Learning for Static Analysis

In this section we first introduce the general framework of reinforcement learning and then discuss its instantiation for static analysis.

2.1 Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement learning (RL) [24] involves an agent learning to achieve a goal by interacting with its environment. The agent starts from an initial representation of its environment in the form of an initial state \(s_{0} \in \mathcal {S}\) where \(\mathcal {S}\) is the set of possible states. Then, at each time step \(t=0,1,2,\dots \), the agent performs an action \(a_{t} \in \mathcal {A}\) in state \(s_{t}\) (\(\mathcal {A}\) is the set of possible actions) and moves to the next state \(s_{t+1}\). The agent receives a numerical reward \(r(s_{t},a_{t},s_{t+1}) \in \mathbb {R}\) for moving from the state \(s_{t}\) to \(s_{t+1}\) through action \(a_{t}\). The agent repeats this process until it reaches a final state. Each sequence of states and actions from an initial state to the final state is called an episode.

In RL, state transitions typically satisfy the Markov property: the next state \(s_{t+1}\) depends only on the current state \(s_{t}\) and the action \(a_{t}\) taken from \(s_{t}\). A policy \(p :\mathcal {S} \rightarrow \mathcal {A}\) is a mapping from states to actions: it specifies the action \(a_{t} = p(s_t)\) that the agent will take when in state \(s_{t}\). The agent’s goal is to learn a policy that maximizes not an immediate but a cumulative reward for its actions in the long term. The agent does this by selecting the action with the highest expected long-term reward in a given state. The quality function (Q-function) \(Q :\mathcal {S}\times \mathcal {A} \rightarrow \mathbb {R}\) specifies the long term cumulative reward associated with choosing an action \(a_{t}\) in state \(s_{t}\). Learning this function, which is not available a priori, is essential for determining the best policy and is explained next.

Q-learning and Approximating the Q-function. Q-learning [25] can be used to learn the Q-function over state-action pairs. Typically the size of the state space is so large that it is not feasible to explicitly compute the Q-function for each state-action pair and thus the function is approximated. In this paper, we consider a linear function approximation of the Q-function for three reasons: (i) effectiveness: the approach is efficient, can handle large state spaces, and works well in practice [6]; (ii) it leverages our application domain: in our setting, it is possible to choose meaningful features (e.g., approximation of volume and cost of transformer) that relate to precision and performance of the static analysis and thus it is not necessary to uncover them automatically (as done, e.g., by training a neural net); and (iii) interpretability of policy: once the Q-function and associated policy are learned they can be inspected and interpreted.

The Q-function is described as a linear combination of \(\ell \) basis functions \(\phi _i:\mathcal {S}\times \mathcal {A}\rightarrow \mathbb {R}\), \(i=1,\dots ,\ell \). Each \(\phi _i\) is a feature that assigns a value to a (state, action) pair and \(\ell \) is the total number of chosen features. The choice of features is important and depends on the application domain. We collect the feature functions into a vector \(\phi (s,a) = (\phi _{1}(s,a),\phi _{2}(s,a),\dots ,\phi _{\ell }(s,a))\); doing so, the Q-function has the form:
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} Q(s,a) = \sum _{j=1}^{\ell } \theta _{j} \cdot \phi _{j}(s,a) = \phi (s,a)\cdot \theta ^T, \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
where \(\theta =(\theta _{1},\theta _{2},\dots ,\theta _{\ell })\) is the parameter vector. The goal of Q-learning with linear function approximation is thus to estimate (learn) \(\theta \).

Algorithm 1 shows the Q-learning procedure. In the algorithm, \(0 \le \gamma < 1\) is the discount factor which represents the difference in importance between immediate and future rewards. \(\gamma =0\) makes the agent only consider immediate rewards while \(\gamma \approx 1\) gives more importance to future rewards. The parameter \(0< \alpha \le 1\) is the learning rate that determines the extent to which the newly acquired information overrides the old information. The algorithm first initializes \(\theta \) randomly. Then, for each step t in an episode, the agent takes an action \(a_{t}\), moves to the next state \(s_{t+1}\) and receives a reward \(r(s_{t},a_{t},s_{t+1})\). Line 12 in the algorithm shows the equation for updating the parameters \(\theta \). Notice that Q-learning is an off-policy learning algorithm as the update in the equation assumes that the agent follows a greedy policy (from state \(s_{t+1}\)) while the action (\(a_{t}\)) taken by the agent (in \(s_{t}\)) need not be greedy.

Once the Q-function is learned, a policy \(p^{*}\) for maximizing the agent’s cumulative reward is obtained as:
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} p^*(s) = \texttt {argmax}_{a\in \mathcal {A}}Q(s, a). \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
In the application, \(p^*\) is computed on the fly at each stage s by computing Q for each action a and choosing the one with maximal Q(sa). Since the number of actions is typically small, this incurs little overhead.

2.2 Instantiation of RL to Static Analysis

We now discuss a general recipe for instantiating the RL framework described above to the domain of static analysis. The precise formal instantiation to the specific numerical (Polyhedra) analysis is provided later.

In Table 1, we show a mapping between RL and program analysis concepts. Here, the analyzer is the agent that observes its environment, which is the abstract program state (e.g., polyhedron) arising at every iteration of the analysis. In general, the number of possible abstract states can be very large (or infinite) and thus, to enable RL in this setting, we abstract the state through a set of features (Table 2). An example of a feature could be the number of bounded program variables or the volume of a polyhedron. The challenge is to define the features to be fast to evaluate, yet sufficiently representative so the policy derived through learning generalizes well to unseen abstract program states.
Table 1.

Mapping of RL concepts to Static analysis concepts.

RL concept

Static analysis concept


Static analyzer

State \(s\in \mathcal {S}\)

Features of abstract state

Action \(a\in \mathcal {A}\)

Abstract transformer

Reward function r

Transformer precision and runtime


Value associated with abstract state features and transformer

Further, at every abstract state, the analyzer should have the choice between different actions corresponding to different abstract transformers. The transformers should range from expensive and precise to cheap and approximate. The reward function r is thus composed of a measure of precision and speed and should encourage approximations that are both precise and fast.

The goal of our agent is to then learn an approximation policy that at each step selects an action that tries to minimize the loss of analysis precision at fixpoint, while gaining overall performance. Learning such a policy is typically done offline using a given dataset \(\mathcal {D}\) of programs (discussed in evaluation). However, this is computationally challenging because the dataset \(\mathcal {D}\) can contain many programs and each program will need to be analyzed many times over during training: even a single run of the analysis can contain many (e.g., thousands) calls to abstract transformers. Thus, a good heuristic may be a complicated function of the chosen features. Hence, to improve the efficiency of learning in practice, one would typically exercise the choice for multiple transformers/actions only at certain program points. A good choice, and one we employ, are join points, where the most expensive transformer in numerical domains usually occurs.

Another key challenge lies in defining a suitable space of transformers. As we will see later, we accomplish this by leveraging recent advances in online decomposition for numerical domains [20, 21, 22]. We show how to do that for the notoriously expensive Polyhedra analysis; however, the approach is easily extendable to other popular numerical domains, which all benefit from decomposition.

3 Polyhedra Analysis and Approximate Transformers

In this section we first provide brief background on polyhedra analysis and online decomposition, a recent technique to speed up analysis without losing precision and applicable to all popular numerical domains [22]. Then we leverage online decomposition to define a flexible approximation framework that loses precision in a way that directly translates into performance gains. This framework forms the basis for our RL approach discussed in Sect. 4.

3.1 Polyhedra Analysis

Let \(\mathcal {X}=\{x_{1},x_{2},\dots ,x_{n}\}\) be the set of n (numerical) program variables where each variable \(x_i\in \mathbb {Q}\) takes a rational value. An abstract element \(P \subseteq \mathbb {Q}^n\) in the Polyhedra domain is a conjunction of linear constraints \(\sum _{i=1}^{n}a_{i}x_{i} \le c\) between the program variables where \(a_{i} \in \mathbb {Z}, c \in \mathbb {Q}\). This is called the constraint representation of the polyhedron.
Fig. 1.

Two representations of polyhedron P: As conjunction of 4 constraints \(\mathcal {C}_{P}\), and as convex hull of 3 vertices and 2 rays \(\mathcal {G}_{P}\).

Constraints and Generator Representation. For efficiency, it is common to maintain besides the constraint representations also the generator representation, which encodes a polyhedron as the convex hull of a finite set of vertices, rays, and lines. Rays and lines are represented by their direction. Thus, by abuse of prior notation we write \(P=(\mathcal {C}_{P},\mathcal {G}_{P})\) where \(\mathcal {C}_{P}\) is the constraints representation (before just called P) and \(\mathcal {G}_{P}\) is the generator representation.

Example 1

Figure 1 shows an example of the two representations of an abstract element P in the Polyhedra domain. \(\mathcal {C}_P\) is the intersection of 4 linear constraints:
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} \mathcal {C}_{P}&=\{-x_{1}\le -2,-x_{2}\le -2,x_{2}\le 10,3x_{2}-5x_{1}\le 5\}. \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
\(\mathcal {G}_{P}\) is the convex hull of 3 vertices and 2 rays:
$$\begin{aligned} \mathcal {G}_{P}&= \{vertices, \, rays, \, lines\} = \{\{(2,2),(2,5),(5,10)\}, \{(1,0),(1,0)\}, \emptyset \}. \end{aligned}$$
Notice that \(\mathcal {G}_{P}\) contains two rays in the same direction (1, 0); thus one of them could be removed without changing the set of points in P.

During analysis, the abstract elements are manipulated with abstract transformers that model the effect of statements and control flow in the program such as assignment, conditional, join, and others. Upon termination of the analysis, each program statement has an associated subsequent P containing all possible variable values after this statement. The main bottleneck for the Polyhedra analysis is the join transformer (\(\sqcup \)), and thus it is the focus for our approximations.

Recently, Polyhedra domain analysis was sped up by orders of magnitude, without approximation, using the idea of online decomposition [21]. The basic idea is to dynamically decompose the occurring abstract elements into independent components (in essence abstract elements on smaller variable sets) based on the connectivity between variables in the constraints, and to maintain this (permanently changing) decomposition during analysis. The finer the decomposition, the faster the analysis.

Our approximation framework builds on online decomposition. The basic idea is simple: we approximate by dropping constraints to reduce connectivity among constraints and thus to yield finer decompositions of abstract elements. These directly translate into speedup. We consider various options of such approximation; reinforcement learning (in Sect. 4) will then learn a proper, context-sensitive strategy that stipulates when and which approximation option to apply.

Next, we provide brief background on the ingredients of online decomposition and explain our mechanisms for soundly approximating the join transformer.

3.2 Online Decomposition

Online decomposition is based on the observation that during analysis, the set of variables \(\mathcal {X}\) in a given polyhedron P can be partitioned as \( \pi _P = \{\mathcal {X}_1,\dots ,\mathcal {X}_r\} \) into blocks \(\mathcal {X}_t\), such that constraints exist only between variables in the same block. Each unconstrained variable \(x_{i} \in \mathcal {X}\) yields a singleton block \(\{x_{i}\}\). Using this partition, P can be decomposed into a set of smaller Polyhedra \(P(\mathcal {X}_{t})\) called factors. As a consequence, the abstract transformer can now be applied only on the small subset of factors relevant to the program statement, which translates into better performance.

Example 2

Consider the set \(\mathcal {X}= \{x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},x_{4},x_{5},x_{6}\}\) and the polyhedron:
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} P&=\{2x_{1}-3x_{2}+ x_{3}+x_{4} \le 0,x_{5}=0\}. \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
Here, \(\pi _{P}=\{\{x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},x_{4}\},\{x_{5}\},\{x_{6}\}\}\) is a possible partition of \(\mathcal {X}\) with factors
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} P(\mathcal {X}_{1})=\{2x_{1}-3x_{2}+x_{3}+x_{4} \le 0\} \text {, } P(\mathcal {X}_{2})=\{x_{5}=0\} \text {, } P(\mathcal {X}_{3})=\emptyset . \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$

The set of partitions of \(\mathcal {X}\) forms a lattice with the ordering \(\pi \sqsubseteq \pi '\) iff every block of \(\pi \) is a subset of a block of \(\pi '\). Upper and lower bound of two partitions \(\pi _1,\pi _2\), i.e., \(\pi _1\sqcup \pi _2\) and \(\pi _1\sqcap \pi _2\) are defined accordingly.

The optimal (finest) partition for an element P is denoted with \(\pi _{P}\). Ideally, one would always determine and maintain this finest partition for each output Z of a transformer but it may be too expensive to compute. Thus, the online decomposition in [20, 21] often computes a (cheaply computable) permissible partition \(\overline{\pi }_{Z}\sqsupseteq \pi _Z\). Note that making the output partition coarser (while keeping the same constraints) does not change the precision of the abstract transformer.

3.3 Approximating the Polyhedra Join

Let \(\overline{\pi }_\text {com} = \overline{\pi }_{P_{1}} \sqcup \overline{\pi }_{P_{2}}\) be a common permissible partition for the inputs \(P_1,P_2\) of the join transformer. Then, from [21], a permissible partition for the (not approximated) output is obtained by keeping all blocks \(\mathcal {X}_t\in \overline{\pi }_\text {com}\) for which \(P_1(\mathcal {X}_t) = P_2(\mathcal {X}_t)\) in the output partition \(\overline{\pi }_Z\), and fusing all remaining blocks into one. Formally, \(\overline{\pi }_{Z}=\{\mathcal {N}\} \cup \mathcal {U}\), where
$$\begin{aligned} \mathcal {N}=\displaystyle \bigcup \{\mathcal {X}_{k} \in \overline{\pi }_\text {com}: P_{1}(\mathcal {X}_{k}) \ne P_{2}(\mathcal {X}_{k})\},\quad \mathcal {U}=\displaystyle \{\mathcal {X}_{k} \in \overline{\pi }_\text {com}: P_{1}(\mathcal {X}_{k}) = P_{2}(\mathcal {X}_{k})\}. \end{aligned}$$
The join transformer computes the generators \(\mathcal {G}_{Z}\) for the output Z as \(\mathcal {G}_{Z}=\mathcal {G}_{P_{1}(\mathcal {X}\setminus \mathcal {N})} \times (\mathcal {G}_{P_{1}(\mathcal {N})} \cup \mathcal {G}_{P_{2}(\mathcal {N})})\) where \(\times \) is the Cartesian product. The constraint representation \(\mathcal {C}_{Z}\) is computed as \(\mathcal {C}_{Z}=\mathcal {C}_{P_{1}(\mathcal {X}\setminus \mathcal {N})} \cup { \texttt {conversion}}(\mathcal {G}_{P_{1}(\mathcal {N})} \cup \mathcal {G}_{P_{2}(\mathcal {N})})\). The conversion algorithm has worst-case exponential complexity and is the most expensive step of the join. Note that the decomposed join applies it only on the generators \(\mathcal {G}_{P_{1}(\mathcal {N})} \cup \mathcal {G}_{P_{2}(\mathcal {N})}\) corresponding to the block \(\mathcal {N}\).

The cost of the decomposed join transformer depends on the size of the block \(\mathcal {N}\). Thus, it is desirable to bound this size by a \({ threshold}\in \mathbb {N}\). Let \(\mathcal {B}=\{\mathcal {X}_{k} \in \overline{\pi }_\text {com} : \mathcal {X}_{k} \cap \mathcal {N} \ne \emptyset \}\) be the set of blocks that merge into \(\mathcal {N}\) in the output \(\overline{\pi }_{Z}\) and \(\mathcal {B}_{t}=\{\mathcal {X}_{k} \in \mathcal {B}: |\mathcal {X}_{k}| > { threshold}\}\) be the set of blocks in \(\mathcal {B}\) with size \(> { threshold}\).

Splitting of Large Blocks. For each block \(\mathcal {X}_t \in \mathcal {B}_{t}\), we apply the join on the associated factors: \(Z(\mathcal {X}_{t}) = P_{1}(\mathcal {X}_{t})\sqcup P_{2}(\mathcal {X}_{t})\). We then remove constraints from \(Z(\mathcal {X}_t)\) until it decomposes into blocks of sizes \(\le { threshold}\). Since we only remove constraints from \(Z(\mathcal {X}_t)\), the resulting transformer remains sound. There are many choices for removing constraints as shown in the next example.

Example 3

Consider the following polyhedron and \({ threshold}=4\)
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} \mathcal {X}_{t}=\{&x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},x_{4},x_{5},x_{6}\},\\ Z(\mathcal {X}_{t})=\{&x_{1}-x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,\\&x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0, x_{4}-x_{5} \le 0, x_{4}-x_{6} \le 0\}. \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
We can remove \(\mathcal {M}=\{x_{4}-x_{5}\le 0,x_{4}-x_{6}\le 0\}\) from \(Z(\mathcal {X}_{t})\) to obtain the constraint set \(\{x_{1}-x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0\}\) with partition \(\{\{x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},x_{4}\}, \{x_5\}, \{x_6\}\}\), which obeys the threshold.

We could also remove \(\mathcal {M}'=\{x_{2}+x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0,x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0\}\) from \(Z(\mathcal {X}_{t})\) to get the constraint set \(\{x_{1}-x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{4}-x_{5} \le 0, x_{4}-x_{6} \le 0\}\) with partition \(\{\{x_{1},x_{2},x_{3}\}, \{x_{4},x_{5},x_{6}\}\}\), which also obeys the threshold.

We next discuss our choices for the constraint removal algorithm.

Stoer-Wagner min-cut. The first basic idea is to remove a minimal number of constraints in \(Z(\mathcal {X}_t)\) that decomposes the block \(\mathcal {X}_t\) into two blocks. To do so, we associate with \(Z(\mathcal {X}_t)\) a weighted undirected graph \(G=(\mathcal {V},\mathcal {E})\), where \(\mathcal {V}=\mathcal {X}_{t}\). Further, there is an edge between \(x_{i}\) and \(x_{j}\), if there is a constraint containing both; its weight \(m_{ij}\) is the number of such constraints. We then apply the standard Stoer-Wagner min-cut algorithm [23] to obtain a partition of \(\mathcal {X}_{t}\) into \(\mathcal {X}_{t}'\) and \(\mathcal {X}_{t}''\). \(\mathcal {M}\) collects all constraints that need to be removed, i.e., those that contain at least one variable from both \(\mathcal {X}_{t}'\) and \(\mathcal {X}_{t}''\).
Fig. 2.

Graph G for \(Z(\mathcal {X}_t)\) in Example 3

Example 4

Figure 2 shows the graph G for \(Z(\mathcal {X}_t)\) in Example 3. Applying the Stoer-Wagner min-cut on G once will cut off \(x_5\) or \(x_6\) by removing the constraint \(x_{4}-x_{5}\) or \(x_{4}-x_{6}\), respectively. In either case a block of size 5 remains, exceeding the threshold of 4. After two applications, both constraints have been removed and the resulting block structure is given by \(\{\{x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},x_{4}\}, \{x_{5}\}, \{x_{6}\}\}\). The associated factors are \(\{x_{1}-x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0\}\) and \(x_5,x_6\) become unconstrained.

Weighted Constraint Removal. Our second approach for constraints removal does not associate weights with edges but with constraints. It then removes greedily edges with high weights. Specifically, we consider the following two choices of constraint weights, yielding two different constraint removal policies:
  • For each variable \(x_{i} \in \mathcal {X}_{t}\), we first compute the number \(n_{i}\) of constraints containing \(x_{i}\). The weight of a constraint is then the sum of the \(n_{i}\) over all variables occurring in the constraint.

  • For each pair of variables \(x_{i},x_{j} \in \mathcal {X}_{t}\), we first compute the number \(n_{ij}\) of constraints containing both \(x_{i}\) and \(x_{j}\). The weight of a constraint is then the sum of the \(n_{ij}\) over all pairs \(x_{i},x_{j}\) occurring in the constraint.

Once the weights are computed, we remove the constraint with maximum weight. The intuition is that variables in this constraint most likely occur in other constraints in \(Z(\mathcal {X}_{t})\) and thus they do not become unconstrained upon constraint removal. This reduces the loss of information.

Example 5

Applying the first definition of weights in Example 3, we get \(n_{1}=1,n_{2}=3,n_{3}=4,n_{4}=4,n_{5}=1,n_{6}=1\). The constraint \(x_{2}+x_{3}+x_{4}\le 0\) has the maximum weight of \(n_{2}+n_{3}+n_{4}=11\) and thus is chosen for removal. Removing this constraint from \(Z(\mathcal {X}_{t})\) does not yet yield a decomposition; thus we have to repeat. Doing so \(\{x_{3}+x_{4} \le 0\}\) is chosen. Now, \(Z(\mathcal {X}_{t})\setminus \mathcal {M}=\{x_{1}-x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{4}-x_{5} \le 0, x_{4}-x_{6} \le 0\}\) which can be decomposed into two factors \(\{x_{1}-x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0,x_{2}+x_{3}\le 0\}\) and \(\{x_{4}-x_{5} \le 0, x_{4}-x_{6} \le 0\}\) corresponding to blocks \(\{x_{1},x_{2},x_{3}\}\) and \(\{x_{4},x_{5},x_{6}\}\), respectively, each of size \(\le { threshold}\).

Merging Blocks. The sizes of all blocks in \(\mathcal {B}\setminus \mathcal {B}_{t}\) are \(\le { threshold}\) and we can apply merging to obtain larger blocks \(\mathcal {X}_m \le { threshold}\) to increase the precision of the subsequent join. The join is then applied on the factors \(P_{1}(\mathcal {X}_{m}),P_{2}(\mathcal {X}_{m})\) and the result is added to the output Z. We consider the following three merging strategies. To simplify the explanation, we assume that the blocks in \(\mathcal {B}\setminus \mathcal {B}_{t}\) are ordered by ascending size:
  1. 1.

    No merge: None of the blocks are merged.

  2. 2.

    Merge smallest first: We start merging the smallest blocks as long as the size stays below the threshold. These blocks are then removed and the procedure is repeated on the remaining set.

  3. 3.

    Merge large with small: We start to merge the largest block with the smallest blocks as long as the size stays below the threshold. These blocks are then removed and the procedure is repeated on the remaining set.


Example 6

Consider \({ threshold}=5\) and \(\mathcal {B}\setminus \mathcal {B}_{t}\) with block sizes \(\{1,1,2,2,2,2,3,5,7,10\}\). Merging smallest first yields blocks \(1+1+2\), \(2+2\), \(2+3\) leaving the rest unchanged. The resulting sizes are \(\{4, 4, 5, 5, 7, 10\}\). Merging large with small leaves 10, 7, 5 unchanged and merges \(3+1+1\), \(2+2\), and \(2+2\). The resulting sizes are also \(\{4, 4, 5, 5, 7, 10\}\) but the associated factors are different (since different blocks are merged), which will yield different results in following transformations.

Table 2.

Features for describing RL state s (\(m \in \{1,2\}, 0 \le j \le 8, 0 \le h \le 3 \)).

Feature \(\psi _{i}\)

Extraction complexity

Typical range


Buckets for feature \(\psi _{i}\)

\(|\mathcal {B}|\)




\(\{[j+1,j+1]\}\cup \{[10,\infty )\}\)

min(\(|\mathcal {X}_{k}| : \mathcal {X}_{k} \in \mathcal {B}\))

\(O(|\mathcal {B}|)\)



\(\{[10 \cdot j+1,10\cdot (j+1)] \}\cup \{[91,\infty )\}\)

max(\(|\mathcal {X}_{k}| : \mathcal {X}_{k} \in \mathcal {B}\))

\(O(|\mathcal {B}|)\)



\(\{[10 \cdot j+1,10\cdot (j+1)] \}\cup \{[91,\infty )\}\)

avg(\(|\mathcal {X}_{k}| : \mathcal {X}_{k} \in \mathcal {B}\))

\(O(|\mathcal {B}|)\)



\(\{[10 \cdot j+1,10\cdot (j+1)] \}\cup \{[91,\infty )\}\)

min(\(|\displaystyle \bigcup \mathcal {G}_{P_{m}(\mathcal {X}_{k})}| : \mathcal {X}_{k} \in \mathcal {B}\))

\(O(|\mathcal {B}|)\)



\(\{[100 \cdot j+1,100\cdot (j+1)] \}\cup \{[901,\infty )\}\)

max(\(|\displaystyle \bigcup \mathcal {G}_{P_{m}(\mathcal {X}_{k})}| : \mathcal {X}_{k} \in \mathcal {B}\))

\(O(|\mathcal {B}|)\)



\(\{[100 \cdot j+1,100\cdot (j+1)] \}\cup \{[901,\infty )\}\)

avg(\(|\displaystyle \bigcup \mathcal {G}_{P_{m}(\mathcal {X}_{k})}| : \mathcal {X}_{k} \in \mathcal {B}\))

\(O(|\mathcal {B}|)\)



\(\{[100 \cdot j+1,100\cdot (j+1)] \}\cup \{[901,\infty )\}\)

\(|\{x_{i}\in \mathcal {X}: x_{i} \in [l_{m},u_{m}] \text { in } P_{m}\}|\)




\(\{[5 \cdot h+1,5\cdot (h+1)] \}\cup \{[21,\infty )\}\)

\(|\{x_{i}\in \mathcal {X}:x_{i} \in [l_{m},\infty ) \text { in } P_{m}\}|+ |\{x_{i}\in \mathcal {X}:x_{i} \in (-\infty ,u_{m}] \text { in } P_{m} \}|\)




\(\{[5 \cdot h+1,5\cdot (h+1)] \}\cup \{[21,\infty )\}\)

Need for RL. Algorithm 2 shows how to approximate the join transformer. Different choices of threshold, splitting, and merge strategies yield a range of transformers with different performance and precision depending on the inputs. All of the transformers are non-monotonic, however the analysis always converges to a fixpoint when combined with widening [2]. Determining the suitability of a given choice on an input is highly non-trivial and thus we use RL to learn it.

4 Reinforcement Learning for Polyhedra Analysis

We now describe how to instantiate reinforcement learning for approximating Polyhedra domain analysis. The instantiation consists of the following steps:
  • Extracting the RL state s from the abstract program state numerically using a set of features.

  • Defining actions a as the choices among the threshold, merge and split methods defined in the previous section.

  • Defining a reward function r favoring both high precision and fast execution.

  • Defining the feature functions \(\phi (s,a)\) to enable Q-learning.

States. We consider nine features for defining a state s for RL. The features \(\psi _{i}\), their extraction complexity and their typical range on our benchmarks are shown in Table 2. The first seven features capture the asymptotic complexity of the join [21] on the input polyhedra \(P_{1}\) and \(P_{2}\). These are the number of blocks, the distribution (using maximum, minimum and average) of their sizes, and the number of generators. The precision of the inputs is captured by considering the number of variables \(x_{i} \in \mathcal {X}\) with finite upper and lower bound, and the number of those with only a finite upper or lower bound in both \(P_{1}\) and \(P_{2}\).

As shown in Table 2, each state feature \(\psi _i\) returns a natural number, however, its range can be rather large, resulting in a massive state space. To ensure scalability and generalization of learning, we use bucketing to reduce the state space size by clustering states with similar precision and expected join cost. The number \(n_{i}\) of buckets for each \(\psi _{i}\) and their definition are shown in the last two columns of Table 2. Using bucketing, the RL state s is then a 9-tuple consisting of the indices of buckets where each index indicates the bucket that \(\psi _{i}\)’s return value falls into.

Actions. An action a is a 3-tuple \((th, \, r\_algo, \, m\_algo)\) consisting of:
  • \(th\in \{1,2,3,4\}\) depending on \({ threshold}\) \( \in [5,9]\), [10, 14], [15, 19], or \([20,\infty )\).

  • \(r\_algo\in \{1,2,3\}\): the choice of a constraint removal, i.e., splitting method.

  • \(m\_algo\in \{1,2,3\}\): the choice of merge algorithm.

All three of these have been discussed in detail in Sect. 3. The \({ threshold}\) values were chosen based on performance characterization on our benchmarks. With the above, we have 36 possible actions per state.

Reward. After applying the (approximated join transformer) according to action \(a_{t}\) in state \(s_{t}\), we compute the precision of the output polyhedron \(P_{1} \sqcup P_{2}\) by first computing the smallest (often unbounded) box1 covering \(P_{1} \sqcup P_{2}\) which has complexity O(ng). We then compute the following quantities from this box:
  • \(n_{s}\): number of variables \(x_{i}\) with singleton interval, i.e., \(x_{i} \in [l,u], l=u\).

  • \(n_{b}\): number of variables \(x_{i}\) with finite upper and lower bounds, i.e., \(x_{i} \in [l,u], l\ne u\).

  • \(n_{hb}\): number of variables \(x_{i}\) with either finite upper or finite lower bounds, i.e., \(x_{i} \in (-\infty ,u]\) or \(x_{i} \in [l,\infty )\).

Further, we measure the runtime in CPU cycles \(\textit{cyc}\) for the approximate join transformer. The reward is then defined by
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} r(s_t, a_t, s_{t+1}) = 3\cdot n_{s}+ 2 n_{b}+ n_{hb} - \log _{10}(cyc). \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
As the order of precision for different types of intervals is: singleton > bounded > half bounded interval, the reward function in (3) weighs their numbers by 3, 2, 1. The reward function in (3) favors both high performance and precision. It also ensures that the precision part (\(3\cdot n_{s}+ 2 n_{b}+ n_{hb}\)) has a similar magnitude range as the performance part (\(\log _{10}(cyc))\)2.
Q-function. As mentioned before, we approximate the Q-function by a linear function (1). We define binary feature functions \(\phi _{ijk}\) for each (state, action) pair. \(\phi _{ijk}(s,a)=1\) if the tuple s(i) lies in j-th bucket and action \(a=a_{k}\)
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} \phi _{ijk}(s,a)= 1 \iff s(i)=j \text { and } a=a_{k} \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
The Q-function is a linear combination of state action features \(\phi _{ijk}\)
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} Q(s,a)=\sum _{i=1}^{9} \sum _{j=1}^{n_{i}}\sum _{k=1}^{36}\theta _{ijk} \cdot \phi _{ijk}(s,a). \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
Q-learning. During the training phase, we are given a dataset of programs \(\mathcal {D}\) and we use Q-LEARN from Algorithm 1 on each program in \(\mathcal {D}\) to perform Q-learning. Q-learning is performed with input parameters instantiated as explained above and summarized in Table 3. Each episode consists of a run of Polyhedra analysis on a benchmark in \(\mathcal {D}\). We run the analysis multiple times on each program in \(\mathcal {D}\) and update the Q-function after each join by calling Q-LEARN.
Table 3.

Instantiation of Q-learning to Polyhedra static analysis.

RL concept

Polyhedra analysis instantiation


Polyhedra analysis

State \(s\in \mathcal {S}\)

As described in Table 2

Action \(a\in \mathcal {A}\)

Tuple \((th, \, r\_algo, \, m\_algo)\)

Reward function r

Shown in (3)

Feature \(\phi \)

Defined in (4)


Q-function from (5)

A Q-function is typically learned using an \(\epsilon \)-greedy policy [24] where the agent takes greedy actions by exploiting the current Q-estimates while also exploring randomly. The policy requires initial random exploration to learn good Q-estimates that can be later exploited. This is infeasible for the Polyhedra analysis as a typical episode contains thousands of join calls. Therefore, we generate actions for Q-learning by exploiting the optimal policy for precision (which always selects the precise join) and explore performance by choosing a random approximate join: both with a probability of 0.53.

Formally, the action \(a_{t}:=p(s_{t})\) selected in state \(s_{t}\) during learning is given by \(a_{t}= (th, \, r\_algo, \, m\_algo)\) where
$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} th&={\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} \texttt {rand()~\%~4+1} \text { with probability 0.5}\\ \texttt {min}(4,(\sum _{i=1}^{|\mathcal {B}|}|\mathcal {X}_{k}|)/5)\text { with probability 0.5}\\ \end{array}\right. },\\ r\_algo&=\texttt {rand}()~\%~3+1, m\_algo =\texttt {rand}()~\%~3+1. \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
Obtaining the Learned Policy. After learning over the dataset \(\mathcal {D}\), the learned approximating join transformer in state \(s_{t}\) chooses an action according to (2) by selecting the maximal value over all actions. The value of \(th=1,2,3,4\) is decoded as \({ threshold}=5,10,15,20\) respectively.

5 Experimental Evaluation

We implemented our approach in the form of a C-library for Polyhedra analysis, called Poly-RL. We compare the performance and precision of Poly-RL against the state-of-the-art ELINA [1], which uses online decomposition for Polyhedra analysis without losing precision. In addition, we implemented two Polyhedra analysis approximations (baselines) based on the following heuristics:
  • Poly-Fixed: uses a fixed strategy based on the results of Q-learning. Namely, we selected the threshold, split and merge algorithm most frequently chosen by our (adaptive) learned policy during testing.

  • Poly-Init: uses an approximate join with probability 0.5 based on (6).

All Polyhedra implementations use 64-bit integers to encode rational numbers. In the case of overflow, the corresponding polyhedron is set to top.

Experimental Setup. All our experiments including learning the parameters \(\theta \) for the Q-function and the evaluation of the learned policy on unseen benchmarks were carried out on a 2.13 GHz Intel Xeon E7- 4830 Haswell CPU with 24 MB L3 cache and 256 GB memory. All Polyhedra implementations were compiled with gcc 5.4.0 using the flags -O3 -m64 -march=native.

Analyzer. For both learning and evaluation, we used the crab-llvm analyzer for C-programs, part of the larger SeaHorn [7] verification framework. The analyzer performs intra-procedural analysis of llvm-bitcode to generate Polyhedra invariants which can be used for verifying assertions using an SMT solver [11].

Benchmarks. SVCOMP [3] contains thousands of challenging benchmarks in different categories suited for different kinds of analysis. We chose the Linux Device Drivers (LD) category, known to be challenging for Polyhedra analysis [21] as to prove properties in these programs one requires Polyhedra invariants (and not say Octagon invariants which are weaker).

Training Dataset. We chose 70 large benchmarks for Q-learning. We ran each benchmark a thousand times over a period of three days to generate sample traces of Polyhedra analysis containing thousands of calls to the join transformer. We set a timeout of 5 minutes per run and discarded incomplete traces in case of a timeout. In total, we performed Q-learning over 110811 traces.

Evaluation Method. For evaluating the effectiveness of our learned policy, we then chose benchmarks based on the following criteria:
  • No overfitting: the benchmark was not used for learning the policy.

  • Challenging: ELINA takes \(\ge 5\) s on the benchmark.

  • Fair: there is no integer overflow in the expensive functions in the benchmark. Because in the case of an overflow, the polyhedron is set to top resulting in a trivial fixpoint at no cost and thus in a speedup that is due to overflow.

Based on these criteria, we found 11 benchmarks on which we present our results. We used a timeout of 1 h and memory limit of 100 GB for our experiments.

Inspecting the Learned Policy. Our learned policy chooses in the majority of cases threshold=20, the binary weighted constraint removal algorithm for splitting, and the merge smallest first algorithm for merging. Poly-Fixed always uses these values for defining an approximate transformer, i.e., it follows a fixed strategy. Our experimental results show that following this fixed strategy results in suboptimal performance compared to our learned policy that makes adaptive, context-sensitive decisions to improve performance.

Results. We measure the precision as a fraction of program points at which the Polyhedra invariants generated by approximate analysis are semantically the same or stronger than the ones generated by ELINA. This is a less biased and more challenging measure than the number of discharged assertions [4, 18, 19] where one can write weak assertions that even a weaker domain can prove.

Table 4 shows the number of program points4, timings (in seconds), and the precision (in %) of Poly-RL, Poly-Fixed, and Poly-Init w.r.t. ELINA on all 11 benchmarks. In the table, the entry TO (MO) means that the analysis did not finish within 1 h (exceeded the memory limit). For an incomplete analysis, we compute the precision by comparing program points for which the incomplete analysis can produce invariants.
Table 4.

Timings (seconds) and precision of approximations (%) w.r.t. ELINA.




































































































\(\approx \)100


\(\approx \)100







\(\approx \)100


\(\approx \)100



Poly-RL vs ELINA. In Table 4, Poly-RL obtains \(>7\)x speed-up over ELINA on 6 of the 11 benchmarks with a maximum of 515x speedup for the mfd_sm501 benchmark. It also obtains the same or stronger invariants on \(\ge 87\%\) of program points on 8 benchmarks. Note that Poly-RL obtains both large speedups and the same invariants at all program points on 3 benchmarks.

The widening transformer removes many constraints produced by the precise join transformer from ELINA which allows Poly-RL to obtain the same invariants as ELINA despite the loss of precision during join in most cases. Poly-RL produces large number of non-comparable fixpoints on 3 benchmarks in Table 4 due to non-monotonic join transformers.

We also tested Poly-RL on 17 benchmarks from the product lines category. ELINA did not finish within an hour on any of these benchmarks whereas Poly-RL finished within 1 s. Poly-RL had 100% precision on the subset of program points at which ELINA produces invariants. With Poly-RL, SeaHorn successfully discharged the assertions. We did not include these results in Table 4 as the precision w.r.t. ELINA cannot be completely compared.

Poly-RL vs Poly-Fixed. Poly-Fixed is never significantly more precise than Poly-RL in Table 4. Poly-Fixed is faster than Poly-RL on 4 benchmarks, however the speedups are small. Poly-Fixed is slower than ELINA on 3 benchmarks and times out on 2 of these. This is due to the overhead of the binary weight constraints removal algorithm and the exponential number of generators in the output.

Poly-RL vs Poly-Init. From (6), Poly-Init takes random actions and thus the quality of its result varies depending on the run. Table 4 shows the results on a sample run. Poly-RL is more precise than Poly-Init on all benchmarks in Table 4. Poly-Init also does not finish on 4 benchmarks.

6 Related Work

Our work can be seen as part of the general research direction on parametric program analysis [4, 9, 14, 18, 19], where one tunes the precision and cost of the analysis by adapting it to the analyzed program. The main difference is that prior approaches fix the learning parameters for a given program while our method is adaptive and can select parameters dynamically based on the abstract states encountered during analysis, yielding better cost/precision tradeoffs. Further, prior work measures precision by the number of assertions proved whereas we target the stronger notion of fixpoint equivalence.

The work of [20, 21] improve the performance of Octagon and Polyhedra domain analysis respectively based on online decomposition without losing precision. We compared against [21] in this paper. As our results suggest, the performance of Polyhedra analysis can be significantly improved with RL. We believe that our approach can be easily extended to the Octagon domain for achieving speedups over the work of [20] as the idea of online decomposition applies to all sub-polyhedra domains [22].

Reinforcement learning based on linear function approximation of the Q-function has been applied to learn branching rules for SAT solvers in [13]. The learned policies achieve performance similar to those of the best branching rules. We believe that more powerful techniques for RL such as deep Q-networks (DQN) [17] or double Q-learning [8] can be investigated to potentially improve the quality of results produced by our approach.

7 Conclusion

Polyhedra analysis is notoriously expensive and has worst-case exponential complexity. We showed how to gain significant speedups by adaptively trading precision for performance during analysis, using an automatically learned policy. Two key insights underlie our approach. First, we identify reinforcement learning as a conceptual match to the learning problem at hand: deciding which transformers to select at each analysis step so to achieve the eventual goal of high precision and fast convergence to fixpoint. Second, we build on the concept of online decomposition, and offer an effective method to directly translate precision loss into significant speed-ups. Our work focused on polyhedra analysis for which we provide a complete implementation and evaluation. We believe the approach can be instantiated to other forms of static analysis in future work.


  1. 1.

    A natural measure of precision is the volume of \(P_{1} \sqcup P_{2}\). However, calculating it is very expensive and \(P_{1} \sqcup P_{2}\) is often unbounded.

  2. 2.

    The \(\log \) is used since the join has exponential complexity.

  3. 3.

    We also tried exploitation probabilities of 0.7 and 0.9, however the resulting policies had suboptimal performance during testing due to limited exploration.

  4. 4.

    The benchmarks contain up to 50K LOC but SeaHorn encodes each basic block as one program point, thus the number of points in Table 4 is significantly reduced.



We would like to thank Afra Amini for her help in implementing the approximate transformers. We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback. This research was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) grant number 163117.


  1. 1.
    ELINA: ETH Library for Numerical Analysis.
  2. 2.
    Bagnara, R., Hill, P.M., Ricci, E., Zaffanella, E.: Precise widening operators for convex polyhedra. In: Cousot, R. (ed.) SAS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2694, pp. 337–354. Springer, Heidelberg (2003). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beyer, D.: Reliable and reproducible competition results with benchexec and witnesses (Report on SV-COMP 2016). In: Chechik, M., Raskin, J.-F. (eds.) TACAS 2016. LNCS, vol. 9636, pp. 887–904. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chae, K., Oh, H., Heo, K., Yang, H.: Automatically generating features for learning program analysis heuristics for C-like languages. Proc. ACM Program. Lang. 1(OOPSLA), 101:1–101:25 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gange, G., Navas, J.A., Schachte, P., Søndergaard, H., Stuckey, P.J.: Exploiting sparsity in difference-bound matrices. In: Rival, X. (ed.) SAS 2016. LNCS, vol. 9837, pp. 189–211. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geramifard, A., Walsh, T.J., Tellex, S.: A Tutorial on Linear Function Approximators for Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning. Now Publishers Inc., Hanover (2013)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gurfinkel, A., Kahsai, T., Komuravelli, A., Navas, J.A.: The seahorn verification framework. In: Kroening, D., Păsăreanu, C.S. (eds.) CAV 2015. LNCS, vol. 9206, pp. 343–361. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasselt, H.V.: Double Q-learning. In: Lafferty, J.D., Williams, C.K.I., Shawe-Taylor, J., Zemel, R.S., Culotta, A. (eds.) Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), pp. 2613–2621 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heo, K., Oh, H., Yang, H.: Learning a variable-clustering strategy for octagon from labeled data generated by a static analysis. In: Rival, X. (ed.) SAS 2016. LNCS, vol. 9837, pp. 237–256. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jourdan, J.-H.: Sparsity preserving algorithms for octagons. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 331, 57–70 (2017). Workshop on Numerical and Symbolic Abstract Domains (NSAD)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Komuravelli, A., Gurfinkel, A., Chaki, S.: SMT-based model checking for recursive programs. In: Biere, A., Bloem, R. (eds.) CAV 2014. LNCS, vol. 8559, pp. 17–34. Springer, Cham (2014). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kulkarni, S., Mangal, R., Zhang, X., Naik, M.: Accelerating program analyses by cross-program training. In: Proceedings of Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA), pp. 359–377 (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lagoudakis, M.G., Littman, M.L.: Learning to select branching rules in the DPLL procedure for satisfiability. Electron. Notes Discret. Math. 9, 344–359 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liang, P., Tripp, O., Naik, M.: Learning minimal abstractions. In: Proceedings Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL), pp. 31–42 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maréchal, A., Monniaux, D., Périn, M.: Scalable minimizing-operators on polyhedra via parametric linear programming. In: Ranzato, F. (ed.) SAS 2017. LNCS, vol. 10422, pp. 212–231. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maréchal, A., Périn, M.: Efficient elimination of redundancies in polyhedra by raytracing. In: Bouajjani, A., Monniaux, D. (eds.) VMCAI 2017. LNCS, vol. 10145, pp. 367–385. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mnih, V., Kavukcuoglu, K., Silver, D., Rusu, A.A., Veness, J., Bellemare, M.G., Graves, A., Riedmiller, M., Fidjeland, A.K., Ostrovski, G., Petersen, S., Beattie, C., Sadik, A., Antonoglou, I., King, H., Kumaran, D., Wierstra, D., Legg, S., Hassabis, D.: Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature 518(7540), 529–533 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oh, H., Lee, W., Heo, K., Yang, H., Yi, K.: Selective context-sensitivity guided by impact pre-analysis. In: Proceedings of Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI), pp. 475–484 (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oh, H., Yang, H., Yi, K.: Learning a strategy for adapting a program analysis via Bayesian optimisation. In: Proceedings of Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA), pp. 572–588 (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh, G., Püschel, M., Vechev, M.: Making numerical program analysis fast. In: Proceedings of Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI), pp. 303–313 (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh, G., Püschel, M., Vechev, M.: Fast polyhedra abstract domain. In: Proceedings of Principles of Programming Languages (POPL), pp. 46–59 (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singh, G., Püschel, M., Vechev, M.: A practical construction for decomposing numerical abstract domains. Proc. ACM Program. Lang. 2(POPL), 55:1–55:28 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stoer, M., Wagner, F.: A simple min-cut algorithm. J. ACM 44(4), 585–591 (1997)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sutton, R.S., Barto, A.G.: Introduction to Reinforcement Learning, 1st edn. MIT Press, Cambridge (1998)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Watkins, C.J.C.H., Dayan, P.: Q-learning. Mach. Learn. 8(3), 279–292 (1992)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

<SimplePara><Emphasis Type="Bold">Open Access</Emphasis>This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License(, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.</SimplePara><SimplePara>The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.</SimplePara>

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations