Anatomy and Physiology of the Esophagus and Lower Esophageal Sphincter

  • Lawrence F. Johnson


As surgeons address foregut disease in their patients with different procedures, a review of relevant anatomy and physiology of the esophagus and LES will complement discussion with their patients and decision-making. As will be apparent in this chapter, the esophagus is more than a conduit that directs liquids and food to other organs, deters reflux, and serves as a passageway for radiographic contrast or endoscopes to define more distant foregut disease/disorders. Instead, the esophagus is a very complex organ whose function is directed by CNS and intrinsic esophageal control that is implemented by skeletal and smooth muscle.


Esophagus Lower esophageal sphincter LES Esophageal body Anatomy Physiology Distal Esophagus General 


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© SAGES 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence F. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of Alabama-BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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