The Speed Calculated Hand Activity Level (HAL) Matches Observer Estimates Better Than the Frequency Calculated HAL

  • Oguz Akkas
  • Stephen Bao
  • Carisa Harris-Adamson
  • Jia-Hua Lin
  • Alysha Meyers
  • David Rempel
  • Robert G. RadwinEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 820)


Hand Activity Level (HAL) can be estimated from observations (HALO), calculated from exertion frequency, F and duty cycle D (HALF) or from speed, S and D (HALS). Data collected by prospective cohort studies were used to compare these methods. There was 75% agreement between HALO and HALS (HALS = 1.02 × HALO −0.2, R2 = 0.78, F(1,1003) = 43665, p < .001), but only 30% agreement between HALO and HALF (HALF = 0.21 × HALO + 2.2, R2 = 0.04, F(1,1003) = 71.71, p < .001). HALS was more consistent with HALO since both are dependent on speed, and because HALS can be automated, it is more objective than HALF or HALO in this sample.


Repetitive motion Threshold limit value Musculoskeletal disorders 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oguz Akkas
    • 1
  • Stephen Bao
    • 2
  • Carisa Harris-Adamson
    • 3
  • Jia-Hua Lin
    • 2
  • Alysha Meyers
    • 4
  • David Rempel
    • 3
  • Robert G. Radwin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Washington State Department of Labor and IndustriesOlympiaUSA
  3. 3.University of California-San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.National Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthCincinnatiUSA

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