Field Observations of Interactions Among Drivers at Unsignalized Urban Intersections

  • Evangelia PortouliEmail author
  • Dimtiris Nathanael
  • Kostas Gkikas
  • Angelos Amditis
  • Loizos Psarakis
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 823)


Interactions among drivers are an essential part of the driving task and need to be considered in the design of interaction strategies of automated vehicles. Interactions between drivers relevant to left and right turns in unsignalized urban intersections were recorded via an eye glass mounted gaze sensor. Participants were asked to retrospectively comment aloud on the process of their decision making for each case of interaction. The typical sequences of actions that were observed relevant to left and right turns may be used as a basis for designing turning strategies for automated vehicles. Establishing eye contact was considered as a good means to convince the other driver to yield, while avoiding eye contact was interpreted as unwillingness to do so. Vehicle edging was intentionally used by participants so that the other coming drivers could better see them. Automated vehicles should consider using edging and directed communication to other drivers in their interaction strategies.


Drivers’ interactions Communication Automated vehicles 



This work is a part of the interACT project. interACT has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research & innovation programme under grant agreement no 723395. Content reflects only the authors’ view and European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Recruitment of participants and data collection was conducted in accordance with National Technical University of Athens ethics procedures concerning research involving human participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evangelia Portouli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dimtiris Nathanael
    • 2
  • Kostas Gkikas
    • 2
  • Angelos Amditis
    • 1
  • Loizos Psarakis
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Communication and Computer SystemsZografouGreece
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensZografouGreece

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