Analysis of Posture Adopted by Female Kolhapuri Chappal (Footwear) Manufacturing Workers India

  • Urmi SalveEmail author
  • Ganesh Jadhav
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 826)


Footwear industry is an important sector of leather industries in India, distributed in various locations. It is divided into organized and unorganized (mainly craft based). Kolhapuri Chappal (footwear) is prominent among all craft based footwear manufacturing. This craft which has significant presence in local and national economy (export and domestic market), is a cottage based industry and mainly family entrepreneurship. The entire manufacturing process is divided into various steps and steps are divided among male and female workers of the house. Female workers are mostly involved in less forceful activities. But while doing, female workers occupy apparently various non-optimal postures which may lead to development of musculoskeletal and other occupational disorders. To understand the above a study was taken up for identifying the working postural load and its effect. The current working conditions and the frequencies of MSD symptoms of 51 female workers were evaluated. Musculoskeletal health data were collected through standard questionnaire and RULA was used for postural load analysis. SPSS version 20.0 was used for statistical data analysis. Age, height and weight of the subjects were 33.6 (±13.17) years, 152.3 (±3.2) cm and 51 (±4.3) kg respectively. The results of postural load analysis revealed that there is need for effective implementation of intervention program and some changes are required immediately with respect to their current workstations. Further it has been identified that there is a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among female workers at low back followed by neck, knee and upper-back. Further in understanding the relation with the postural load and types of musculoskeletal pain, it was found that there are association with RULA grand score and prevalence of low-back pain. The above result is comparable with other available literature of similar types of industry. As this occupation is very specific in nature it requires further investigation in detail.


Women Musculoskeletal disorders Footwear industry 



The authors express their truthful appreciation to all those footwear manufacturing workers who rendered enormous assistance during the completion of this study. Also they express their sincere gratitude to all the students who helps the research team to collect field data. Further they express their gratitude to Mr. Hemant Shete for his contribution during this whole project.


  1. Aghali M, Asilian H, Parinaz P (2012) Evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders in sewing machine operators of a shoe manufacturing factory in Iran. J Pak Med 62:20–25Google Scholar
  2. Dianat I, Salimi A (2014) Working conditions of Iranian hand-sewn shoe workers and associations with musculoskeletal symptoms. Ergonomics 4:602–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Corlett EN, Bishop RP (1976) A Technique for Assessing Postural Discomfort. Ergonomics 19(2):175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gangopadhyay S, Ara T, Dev S, Ghoshal G, Das T (2011) An occupational health study of the footwear manufacturing workers of Kolkata, India. Ethno Med 5(1):11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Giri PA, Meshram PV, Kasbe AM (2012) Socio-demographic determinants and morbidity profile of people engaged in bag making occupation in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Natl. J Community Med 3:601–606Google Scholar
  6. Kuorinka I, Jonsson B, Kilbom A, Vinterberg H, Sorensen FB, Andersson G, Jorgensen K (1987) Standardised nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Appl Ergon 18:233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Loewenson R (2002) Occupational hazards in the informal sector: a global perspective. In: Health eff. new labour mark, pp 329–342Google Scholar
  8. McAtamney L, Corlett E (1993) RULA: a survey method for the investigation of work related upper limb disorders. Appl Ergon 24(2):91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. O’Neill DH (2000) Ergonomics in industrially developing countries: does its application differ from that in industrially advanced countries? Appl Ergon 31:631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Salve UR, Jadhav GS, Shete HK (2017) Design Solution of Shoe Sole (Base of the Footwear) Preparation in Traditional Hand Sewn Footwear Manufacturing: a case study on Kolhapuri Chappal. In: Advances in ergonomics in design, vol 588. Springer, Cham, pp 995–1013Google Scholar
  11. Szubert Z, Wilczynska U, Sobala W (2001) Health risk among workers employed in rubber footwear plant. Med Pr 52(6):409–416Google Scholar
  12. Tiwari R (2005) Child labour in footwear industry: possible occupational health hazards. Indian J Occup Environ Med 9:7–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wang P, Rampel D, Harrison R, Chan J, Ritz B (2007) Work-organizational and personal factors associated with upper body musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators. Occup Environ Med 64:806–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DesignIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiNorth Guwahati, AmingaonIndia

Personalised recommendations