Advances in the Field of Microbial Infection in the Cornea and the Role of Nanotechnology in Treating Keratitis

  • Aseel Al-Mashahedah
  • Rupinder Kaur Kanwar
  • Jagat Rakesh KanwarEmail author


Microbial keratitis has long been associated with the activity of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses, causing corneal epithelium disorder, decreased corneal material, and potential loss of vision. In fact, the ocular barriers have two contradictory roles during the infection pathway: the first involves protection of the eye from pathogens, while the second is involved in the obstruction of drug bioavailability. Here, we introduce a comprehensive overview of microbial keratitis as a world-wide concern and study some aspects of the mechanisms of microbial infection. We also review the role of the eye’s natural defenses toward pathogens. More importantly, we highlight the potential of nanoparticles as therapy against increased multi-drug resistant microbes and the ability of these treatments to achieve drug bioavailability. Hence, nano-therapy provides a promising treatment for microbial keratitis in the future.


Microbial keratitis Eye defenses Immune response Organic nanoparticles Metal nanoparticles Nanomedicine Cornea Drug delivery Infection 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aseel Al-Mashahedah
    • 1
  • Rupinder Kaur Kanwar
    • 1
  • Jagat Rakesh Kanwar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biochemical Research (NLIMBR), Centre Molecular and Medical Research (CMMR), School of Medicine, Deakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia

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