Seismic Re-qualification of Caisson Supported Dhansiri River Bridge

Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


There are multitudinous major river bridges in India which were built prior to the development of seismic codes and it is very difficult to predict the performance of those bridges during earthquake. Since bridges are the lifeline structures, it is essential to requalify these structures in light of the new and better understanding of seismic resistant design philosophies. This paper aims to carry out a requalification study of an important river bridge supported on caisson foundations (or Well Foundations). Field investigation and laboratory tests on soil samples from the bridge site are carried out and the data achieved are used as input values for the soil model. Two different types of earthquakes, each having different dynamic properties are considered for the study. The effective stress site response analysis is carried out and the liquefaction potential of the bridge site is evaluated. Analysis revealed that a large number of the soil layers are liquefied under the applied earthquake motions. Considering the liquefied soil, seismic analysis of the bridge is carried out. The seismic analysis gives the damage levels in terms of bending moments and displacements of the well foundation. The moment of resistance of the well section is calculated and the maximum bending moments under the considered earthquakes are checked with the moment capacity of the well. It is found that the well is safe under both the earthquakes. Hence, no strengthening or retrofitting strategies of the bridge structure are required for this study.


River Bridge Site Response Analysis Liquefaction Potential Caisson Foundations Sikkim Earthquake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The first author would like to thank the supervisor of this work Dr. Arup Bhattacharjee, J.E.C., Assam for his inspiring guidance and constant encouragement in completing the work. The authors acknowledge Jorhat NH division of PWD, Assam for providing the structural drawing and hydraulic data of the bridge.


  1. American Petroleum Institute: Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Construction Fixed Offshore Platforms. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. (1993)Google Scholar
  2. Ashford, S.A., Boulanger, R.W., Brandenberg, S.J.: Recommended design practice for pile foundations in laterally spreading ground. In: PEER Report 2011/04, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (2011)Google Scholar
  3. Boulanger, R.W., Curras, C.J., Kutter, B.L., Wilson, D.W., Abghari, A.: Seismic soil-pile-structure interaction experiments and analyses. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 125(9), 750–759 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brandenberg, S.J., Boulanger, R.W., Bruce, L., Kutter, B.L., Dongdong, C.D.: Behavior of pile foundations in laterally spreading ground during centrifuge tests. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. (2005). Scholar
  5. Brandenberg, S.J., Zhao, M., Boulanger, R.W., Wilson, D.W.: p-y plasticity model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of piles in liquefiable soil. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. (2013). Scholar
  6. Choobbasti, A.J., Zahmatkesh, A.: Computation of degradation factors of p-y curves in liquefiable soils for analysis of piles using three-dimensional finite-element model. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. (2016). Scholar
  7. Chopra, A.K.: Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (2012)Google Scholar
  8. Cubrinovski, M., Ishihara, K.: Empirical correlation between SPT N-value and relative density for sandy soils. Jpn. Geotech. Soc. 39(5), 61–71 (1999)Google Scholar
  9. Dayal, U., Jain, S.K.: Liquefaction analysis of a bridge site in Assam (India). In: International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, p. 40 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. Dammala, P.K., Bhattacharya, S., Krishnaa, A.M., Kumara, S.S., Dasguptaa, K.: Scenario based seismic re-qualification of caisson supported major bridges—a case study of Saraighat Bridge. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. (2017). Scholar
  11. Fard, M.Y., Babazadeh, M., Yousefzadeh, P.: Soil liquefaction analysis based on geotechnical exploration and in situ test data in the Tabriz Metro Line 2. In: International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, p. 31 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. Filippou, F.C., Bertero, V.V., Popov, E.P.: Effects of Bond Deterioration on Hysteretic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Joints. Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Berkeley, California (1983)Google Scholar
  13. Gazetas, G.: Foundation vibrations. In: Fang, H.Y. (ed.) Foundation Engineering Handbook, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, New York (1991). Chapter 15Google Scholar
  14. Gazetas, G., Mylonakis, G.: Seismic soil-structure interaction: New evidence and emerging issues. In: Proceeding, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, ASCE, Reston, VA, pp. 1119–1174 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. Idriss, I.M., Boulanger, R.W.: Semi-empirical procedures for evaluating liquefaction potential during earthquakes. In: Eleventh ICSDEE & 3rd ICEGE, pp. 32–56 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. IS 1893: (Part-I)-2002 Indian standard criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002)Google Scholar
  17. IS 1893: Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures. Bureau of Indian Standards, Govt. of India, New Delhi (2002)Google Scholar
  18. IRC 78: Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges, section VII – foundations and substructure. The Indian Road Congress, New Delhi (2000)Google Scholar
  19. IRS: Manual on the design and construction of well and pile foundations. In: Research designs and standards organization, Lucknow—226011 (1985)Google Scholar
  20. Janalizadeh, A., Zahmatkesh, A.: Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils. J. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng. 7, 532–539 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Joyner, W.B., Chen, A.T.F.: Calculation of nonlinear ground response in earthquakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 65(5), 1315–1336 (1975)Google Scholar
  22. Kramer, S.L.: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (1996)Google Scholar
  23. Krishna, A.M., Bhattacharya, S., Choudhury, D.: Seismic requalification of geotechnical structures. Indian Geotech. J. 44(2), 113–118 (2014). Scholar
  24. Kumar, S.S., Krishna, A.M.: Seismic ground response analysis of some typical sites of Guwahati City. Int. J. Geotech. Earthq. Eng. 4(1), 83–101 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lysmer, J., Kuhlemeyer, A.M.: Finite dynamic model for infinite media. J. Eng. Mech. Division ASCE 95, 859–877 (1969)Google Scholar
  26. Maheswari, R.U., Boominathan, A., Dodagoudar, G.R.: Development of empirical correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance in soils of Chennai city. In: The Fourteenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China (2008)Google Scholar
  27. Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M.H., Fenves, G.L., et al.: OpenSees Command Language Manual. PEER University of California, Berkeley (2006)Google Scholar
  28. Neuenhofer, A., Filippou, F.C.: Geometrically nonlinear flexibility-based frame finite element. J. Struc. Eng. 124, 704 (1998). 125(1), 116–116 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ravichandran, N., Krishnapillai, S.H., Bhuiyan, A.H., Eleanor, L., Huggins, E.L.: Simplified finite-element model for site response analysis of unsaturated soil profiles. Int. J. Geomech. (2015). Scholar
  30. Rai, D.C., Kumar, K., Kaushik, H.B.: Ultimate flexural strength of reinforced concrete circular hollow sections. Indian Concr. J. 12, 39–45 (2006)Google Scholar
  31. Puri, V.K., Prakash, S.: Pile design in liquefying soil. In: The Fourteenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 12–17 Oct 2008Google Scholar
  32. Romney, K.T., Barbosa, A.R., Mason, H.B.: Developing a soil bridge interaction model for studying the effects of long-duration earthquake motions. In: Proceedings of the 10th National Conference in Earthquake Engineering, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Anchorage, AK (2014)Google Scholar
  33. Saran, S.: Solid Dynamics and Machine Foundations. Galgotia Publications pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (1999)Google Scholar
  34. Sarkar, R., Bhattacharya, S., Maheshwari, B.K.: Seismic requalification of pile foundations in liquefiable soils. Indian Geotech. J. (2014). Scholar
  35. Sarkar, R., Maheshwari, B.K.: Influence of soil nonlinearity and liquefaction on dynamic response of pile groups. The Fourteenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 12–17 Oct (2008)Google Scholar
  36. Scott, M.H., Fenves, G.L.: Krylov subspace accelerated Newton algorithm: application to dynamic progressive collapse simulation of frames. J. Struct. Eng. (2010). Scholar
  37. Su, D., Yan, W.M.: A multidirectional p–y model for lateral sand–pile interactions. The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Soils Found. 53(2), 199–214 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yassin, M.H.M.: Nonlinear analysis of prestressed concrete structures under monotonic and cycling loads. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California (1994)Google Scholar
  39. Zhang, S.Y., Conte, J.P., Yang, Z., Elgamal, A., Bielak, J., Acero, G.: Two-dimensional nonlinear earthquake response analysis of a bridge-foundation-ground. Earthquake Spectra 24(2), 343–386 (2008). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Design of Civil Engineering Structures, J.E.CJorhatIndia
  2. 2.Jorhat Engineering CollegeJorhatIndia

Personalised recommendations