Simplified Methodology for Stiffness Estimation of Double D Shaped Caisson Foundations

Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Foundation stiffness plays a crucial role in the stability analysis of structures to incorporate the Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) effects. Current design approaches of estimating foundation stiffness include advanced dynamic finite element, distributed spring approach, and lumped spring approach. The aim of this paper is to overview the different methods for computing the foundation stiffness and to check their applicability. This has been done by considering an example: Saraighat Bridge supported on double D shaped caisson foundation. Advanced three dimensional finite element analysis is performed to extract the stiffness (Lateral, rotational, and coupling) of double D foundations and the results are compared to the representative circular foundations. It has been concluded that the stiffness of foundation can be significantly affected by its geometry. Furthermore, the stiffness functions are utilized in computing the fundamental frequency of the bridge and also compared with the frequency obtained from different approaches. The frequency estimated using the present study matches satisfactorily well with the monitored data testifying the validation of the work.


Caisson Foundations Stiffness Estimation Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Stiffness Function Circular Shaft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The first author would like to thank the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission (CSC) for providing him the financial support (reference no: INCN-2016-214) enabling him to perform his research activities in the University of Surrey, United Kingdom. The funding received is fully acknowledged.


  1. Abbas, J.M., Chik, Z.H., Taha, M.R.: Single pile simulation and analysis subjected to lateral load. Electron. J. Geotech. Eng. 13 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. Arany, L., et al.: Closed form solution of eigen frequency of monopile supported offshore wind turbines in deeper waters incorporating stiffness of substructure and SSI. J. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., Elsevier, (2016). Scholar
  3. Banerjee, P.K., Davies, T.G.: The behavior of axially and laterally loaded single piles embedded in non-homogeneous soils. Geotechnique (1978). Scholar
  4. Carter, J.P., Kulhawy, F.H.: Analysis of laterally loaded shafts in rock. J. Geotech. Eng. ASCE (1992). Scholar
  5. Dammala, et al.: Scenario based seismic re-qualification of caisson supported major bridges—a case study of Saraighat Bridge. J. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. (2017a). Scholar
  6. Dammala, et al.: Dynamic soil properties for seismic ground response studies in Northeastern India. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 100, 357–370 (2017b). Scholar
  7. Debnath, N., et al.: Multi-modal vibration control of truss bridges with tuned mass dampers under general loading. J. Vibr. Control (2016). Scholar
  8. Gazetas, G.: Formulas and charts for impedances of surface and embedded foundations. J. Geotech. Eng. ASCE (1991). Scholar
  9. Gibson, R.: The analytical method in soil mechanics. Geotechnique 24, 115–140 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Higgins, W., Basu, D.: Fourier finite element analysis of laterally loaded piles in elastic media. International Geotechnical Report, University of Connecticut, US (2011)Google Scholar
  11. Jalbi et. al.: Practical method to estimate foundation stiffness for design of offshore wind turbines. Wind Energy Eng.: A handbook for onshore and offshore wind turbines, 329 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. Krishnaveni, B., Alluri, S.K.R., Murthy, M.R.: Generation of p-y curves for large diameter monopiles through numerical modelling. Int. J. Res. Eng. Technol. (2016)Google Scholar
  13. Plaxis, B.V.: PLAXIS 3D 2013 Reference Manual. PLAXIS BV, Delft (2013)Google Scholar
  14. Poulos, H.: The displacement of laterally loaded piles: I-single piles. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. 97, 711–731 (1971)Google Scholar
  15. Shadlou, M., Bhattacharya, S.: Dynamic stiffness of monopoles supporting offshore wind turbine generators. J. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., Elsevier, (2016). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SurreyGuildfordUK
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations