Ground Motion Amplification Induced by Shallow Circular Tunnel in Soft Soil

Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in tunnel excavation to resolve traffic problems especially in populated urban areas. However, tunnel excavations could seriously affect ground surface behavior static and dynamic load conditions. Several studies have estimated the ground motion induced by tunnels in homogeneous, isotropic and linear elastic soils, however there is still insufficient data on behavior in real conditions such as non-linear and anisotropic behavior of soil in response to tunnel excavation. The aim of this paper is to examine the ground motion amplification due to excavation of a circular tunnel in shallow depth in soft soil. To this aim, at first, using a verified finite element code, effective parameters of problem including depth and ductility of tunnel, frequency content and soil material set are investigated. Then, the effects of underground circular structure on dynamic response of ground are assessed according to real time history earthquakes. Finally the results are compared with green field condition. The results of this study indicate that underground circular structures have significant effects on ground motion amplification. These effects can be twice as large as green field conditions.


Tunnel Finite element code Soft soil Shallow depth Dynamic analysis 


  1. Abuhajar, O., El Naggar, H., Newson, T.: Effects of underground structures on amplification of seismic motion for sand with varying density. In: Pan-Am CGS Geotechnical Conference. Ontario, Canada (2011)Google Scholar
  2. Afifipour, M., Sharifzadeh, M., Shahriar, K., Jamshidi, H.: Interaction of twin tunnels and shallow foundation at Zand underpass, Shiraz metro, Iran. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 26(2), 356–363 (2011). Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J.H., Potts, D.M.: Subsidence above shallow circular tunnels in soft ground. J. Geotech. Eng. Div. ASCE. 103(4), 307–325 (1977)Google Scholar
  4. Attewell, P.B., Farmer, I.W.: Ground deformations resulting from shield tunneling in London clay. Can. Geotech. J. 11(3), 380–395 (1974). Scholar
  5. Baziar, M.H., Moghadam, M.R., Kim, D.S., Choo, Y.W.: Effect of underground tunnel on the ground surface acceleration. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 44, 10–22 (2014). Scholar
  6. Besharat, V., Davoodi, M., Jafari, M.K. Effect of underground structures on free-field ground motion during earthquakes. In: 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal (2012)Google Scholar
  7. Cilingir, U., Madabhushi, S.G.: A model study on the effects of input motion on the seismic behaviour of tunnels. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 31(3), 452–462 (2011). Scholar
  8. Clough, G.W., Schmidt, B.: Soft clay engineering, excavation and tunneling (Chapter 8). In: Brand, E.W., Brenner, R.P. (eds.) ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  9. Dravinski, M.: Ground motion amplification due to elastic inclusions in a half-space. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 11(3), 313–335 (1983). Scholar
  10. Leach, G.: Pipeline response to tunneling. Unpublished Paper (1985)Google Scholar
  11. Lee, V.W.: Three dimensional diffraction of elastic waves by a spherical cavity in an elastic half-space: closed form solutions. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 7(3), 149–161 (1988). Scholar
  12. Mail, R.J., Gunn, M.J., O’Reilly, M.P.: Ground movement around shallow tunnels in soft clay. In: 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, pp. 323–328. Stockholm (1983)Google Scholar
  13. Maleki, M., Sereshteh, H., Mousivand, M., Bayat, M.: An equivalent beam model for the analysis of tunnel-building interaction. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 26(4), 524–533 (2011). Scholar
  14. Oteo, C. S. & Sagaseta, C. (1996). Some Spanish experiences of measurement and evaluation of ground displacements around urban tunnels. In Geotechnical Aspects of Undergoing Construction in Soft Ground, pp. 731–736. LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Pao, H.Y., Maw, C.C., Achenbach, J.D.: The diffraction of elastic waves and dynamic stress concentrations. J. Appl. Mech. 40(4) (1973) Scholar
  16. Peck, R.B.: Deep excavation and tunneling in soft ground. State of the art report. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, pp. 225–290. Mexico (1969)Google Scholar
  17. Pitilakis, K., Tsinidis, G., Leanza, A., Maugeri, M.: Seismic behaviour of circular tunnels accounting for above ground structures interaction effects. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 67(1–15) (2014) Scholar
  18. PLAXIS Manual: Finite element code for soil and rock plasticity. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands (2005)Google Scholar
  19. Smerzini, C., Aviles, J., Paolucci, R., Sanchez-Sesma, F.J.: Effect of underground cavities on surface ground motion under SH wave propagation. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 38(12), 1441–1460 (2009). Scholar
  20. Sun, Ch., Wang, Q.: Effects of underground structure on acceleration response of site. Adv. Mater. Res. 368–373, 2791–2794 (2012)Google Scholar
  21. Wong, K.C., Shah, A.H., Datta, S.K.: Diffraction of elastic waves in a halfspace. II. Analytical and numerical solutions. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 69–92 (1985)Google Scholar
  22. Yiouta-Mitra, P., Kouretzis, G., Bouckovalas, G., Sofianos, A.: Effect of underground structures in earthquake resistant design of surface structures. ASCE, Dyn. Response Soil Prop. 1–10 (2007).

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Islamic Azad University, Gonbad kavoos branchTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  3. 3.Islamic Azad University, Gonbad Kavoos BranchGonbad KavoosIran

Personalised recommendations