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Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Prostate Cancer

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Cell & Molecular Biology of Prostate Cancer

Part of the book series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ((AEMB,volume 1095))

Abstract

Typically the normal epithelial cells are a single layer, held tightly by adherent proteins that prevent the mobilization of the cells from the monolayer sheet. During prostate cancer progression, the epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition or EMT, characterized by morphological changes in their phenotype from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This is associated with biochemical changes in which epithelial cell markers such as E-cadherin and occludins are down-regulated, which leads to loss of cell-cell adhesion, while mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and N-cadherin are up-regulated, thereby allowing the cells to migrate or metastasize to different organs. The EMT transition can be regulated directly and indirectly by multiple molecular mechanisms including growth factors and cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K). This signaling subsequently induces expression of various transcription factors like Snail, Twist, Zeb1/2, that are also known as master regulators of EMT. Various markers associated with EMT have been reported in prostate cancer patient tissue as well as a possible association with health disparities. There has been consideration to therapeutically target EMT in prostate cancer patients by targeting the EMT signaling pathways.

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Correspondence to Valerie Odero-Marah .

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Odero-Marah, V., Hawsawi, O., Henderson, V., Sweeney, J. (2018). Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Prostate Cancer. In: Schatten, H. (eds) Cell & Molecular Biology of Prostate Cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 1095. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95693-0_6

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