Skip to main content

What Is Local Autonomy?

Part of the Governance and Public Management book series (GPM)

Abstract

The balance between local autonomy and central control is a perennial issue in the territorial organisation of states. Despite the importance of local autonomy, there is little theoretical convergence regarding the core elements of the concept, and a limited number of studies try to measure local autonomy comparatively. This volume aims at filling this gap. On the grounds of a theoretically rooted concept, we measure the autonomy of local government in 39 European countries over a time period of 25 years. After presenting the main research intentions of this volume and the key issues regarding local autonomy, this chapter discusses the underlying normative values and the origins of the concept. What are the different theoretical perspectives and various aspects apprehended by the various disciplinary approaches? We conclude that local autonomy definitely is a multidimensional concept.

Keywords

  • Local autonomy
  • Local government
  • Decentralisation reforms
  • Normative rationales
  • Multidimensional concept

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-95642-8_1
  • Chapter length: 34 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-95642-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    The study was initiated by the Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy of the European Commission (Tender No 2014.CE.16.BAT.031: “Self-rule Index for Local Authorities”).

  2. 2.

    The second part of this question appears particularly interesting in the age of globalisation and Europeanisation or with respect to the financial and economic crisis.

  3. 3.

    Important to note: Decentralisation and local autonomy are not synonyms (Fleurke and Willemse 2004). There can be a strong decentralisation without local autonomy. Only in the case of political or real decentralisation the municipalities enjoy a high degree of autonomy. This is not the case when it comes to administrative decentralisation or to deconcentration (see Kuhlmann and Bogumil 2010; Wollmann 2004).

  4. 4.

    Within the World Bank operational experience, over one-quarter of development policy operations approved in fiscal years 1995–2005 listed at least one condition with a decentralisation theme (Kaiser 2006).

  5. 5.

    It appears from the monitoring reports that out of the different parts of the European Charter of Local Self-Government, the art. 9 on financial resources of local authorities is the one facing most problems, the first two paragraphs being the least complied with. This is not only due to the recent financial crisis affecting many European countries but also to the clear principles and criteria these two paragraphs entail. The second most violated part of the European Charter of Local Self-Government is the art. 4, which enshrined the scope of local self-government, and especially the paragraph 6 about timely and appropriate consultation of local authorities when planning and decision-making processes directly concerning them. Finally, elements not implemented are also often related to the art. 3 par. 2 (democratic principle), the art. 8 par. 1 (adequate legislative basis for supervision), and the art. 11 (legal protection ) ( Council of Europe 2016).

  6. 6.

    In the United Kingdom, the ultra vires rule has been replaced by the Localism Act in 2011.

  7. 7.

    Local autonomy is therefore to be understood in the sense of local government autonomy (freedom from higher levels of government). But we will use the former expression as it has traditionally been used in the fields of local government and urban studies, even to refer only to the governmental relations system. It should be noted that the approach considering local autonomy as the reflection of the local identity is not followed in this study because it would have required the realisation of surveys to capture the autonomy perceived subjectively.

  8. 8.

    The idea of “local self-government” as employed by the European Charter means “local autonomy” since the French version of the treaty is called “Charte européenne de l’autonomie locale”. For the text and the chart of signatures and ratifications of the Treaty, see http://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/122 (consulted in 2018).

References

  • Andrews, C. W., & de Vries, M. S. (2007). High Expectations, Varying Outcomes: Decentralization and Participation in Brazil, Japan, Russia and Sweden. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 73(3), 424–451.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bentham, J. (1970). Of Laws in General. London: The Athlone Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bergvall, D., Merk, O., Kraan, D.-J., & Charbit, C. (2006). Intergovernmental Transfers and Decentralised Public Spending. OECD Journal on Budgeting, 5(4), 111–158.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Blair, P. (1991). Trends in Local Autonomy and Democracy: Reflections from a European Perspective. In R. Batley & G. Stoker (Eds.), Local Government in Europe (pp. 41–57). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Blöchliger, H. (2013). Measuring Decentralisation: The OECD Fiscal Decentralisation Database. In J. Kim, J. Lotz, & H. Blöchliger (Eds.), Measuring Fiscal Decentralisation. Concepts and Policies (pp. 15–35). Paris: OECD Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, M. P. (1992). The Possibility of Local Autonomy. Urban Geography, 13(3), 257–279.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Buchanan, J. M. (1950). Federalism and Fiscal Equity. The American Economic Review, 40(4), 583–599.

    Google Scholar 

  • CEMR (Council of European Municipalities and Regions). (2012). Subnational Public Finance in the European Union. Dexia Crédit Local, Council of European Municipalities and Regions.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chandler, J. A. (2008). Liberal Justifications for Local Government in Britain. The Triumph of Expediency over Ethics. Political Studies, 56(2), 355–373.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chandler, J. A. (2010). A Rationale for Local Government. Local Government Studies, 36(1), 5–20.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, J. L. (2003). Local Government Autonomy and Fiscal Stress: The Case of California Counties. State and Local Government Review, 35(1), 15–25.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, G. L. (1984). A Theory of Local Autonomy. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 74(2), 195–208.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Council of Europe. (1985). European Charter of Local Self-Government. (n°122). Retrieved from http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/122.htm. Consulted in 2018.

  • Council of Europe. (1994). Definition and Limits of the Principle of Subsidiarity. Local and Regional Authorities, 55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Council of Europe. (2016). Comparative Analysis on the Implementation of the European Charter of Local Self-Government in 47 Member States on the Basis of the Adopted Congress Recommendations on Local and Regional Democracy in Member States, Monitoring Committee, Congress of Local and Regional Authorities.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dahl, R. A., & Tufte, E. R. (1973). Size and Democracy. London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Tocqueville, A. (1994 [1835]). Democracy in America. London: Fontana Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeFilippis, J. (1999). Alternatives to the ‘New Urban Politics’: Finding Locality and Autonomy in Local Economic Development. Political Geography, 18(8), 973–990.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Denters, S. A. H., & Rose, L. E. (2005). Comparing Local Governance: Trends and Developments. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Denters, B., Ladner, A., Mouritzen, P. E., & Rose, L. E. (2016). Reforming Local Governments in Times of Crisis: Values and Expectations of Good Local Governance in Comparative Perspective. In S. Kuhlmann & G. Bouckaert (Eds.), Local Public Sector Reforms in Times of Crisis: National Trajectories and International Comparisons (pp. 333–353). London: Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deschouwer, K. (2006). Political Parties as Multi-Level Organizations. In R. S. Katz & W. J. Crotty (Eds.), Handbook of Party Politics (pp. 291–300). London: Sage Publications.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Do Vale, H. F. (2015). Comparing and Measuring Subnational Autonomy Across Three Continents. Lex Localis, 13(3), 741–764.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Elazar, D. J. (1976). Federalism vs. Decentralization: The Drift from Authenticity. Publius, 6(4), 9–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, M. (2014). Democracy, Legitimacy and Local Government Electoral Reform. Local Government Studies, 40(1), 41–63.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • European Commission. (2014). Investment for Jobs and Growth. Promoting Development and Good Governance in EU Regions and Cities. Sixth Report on Economic, Social and Territorial Cohesion. Brussels: European Commission, Regional and Urban Policy.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleurke, F., & Willemse, R. (2004). Approaches to Decentralization and Local Autonomy: A Critical Appraisal. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 26(4), 523–544.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fleurke, F., & Willemse, R. (2006). Measuring Local Autonomy: A Decision-Making Approach. Local Government Studies, 32(1), 71–87.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, M. (1990). Local Autonomy: Theory and Practice. In D. S. King & J. Pierre (Eds.), Challenges to Local Government (pp. 15–36). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, M. (2002). Central Control Over Local Government – A Western European Comparison. Local Government Studies, 28(3), 91–112.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, M., & Newton, K. (1983). Central-Local Government Relations: The Irresistible Rise of Centralised Power. West European Politics, 6(4), 216–233.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, M., & Page, E. C. (2010). Changing Government Relations in Europe: From Localism to Intergovernmentalism. London: Routledge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gurr, T. R., & King, D. S. (1987). The State and the City. London: Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hankla, C. (2009). When Is Fiscal Decentralization Good for Governance? Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 39(4), 632–650.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen, T., & Klausen, J. E. (2002). Between the Welfare State and Local Government Autonomy. Local Government Studies, 28(4), 47–66.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hesse, J. J., & Sharpe, L. J. (1991). Local Government in International Perspective: Some Comparative Observations. In J. J. Hesse (Ed.), Local Government and Urban Affairs in International Perspective (pp. 603–621). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hooghe, L., Marks, G., Schakel, A. H., Osterkatz, S. C., Niedzwiecki, S., & Shair-Rosenfield, S. (2016). Measuring Regional Authority: A Postfunctionalist Theory of Governance (Vol. 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hutchcroft, P. D. (2001). Centralization and Decentralization in Administration and Politics: Assessing Territorial Dimensions of Authority and Power. Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration, 14(1), 23–53.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ivanyna, M., & Shah, A. (2014). How Close Is Your Government to Its People? Worldwide Indicators on Localization and Decentralization. Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, 2013(38), 1–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser, K. (2006). Decentralization Reforms. In A. Coudouel & S. Paternostro (Eds.), Analysing the Distributional Impact of Reforms (pp. 313–353). Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kersting, N., & Vetter, A. (2003). Reforming Local Government in Europe: Closing the Gap Between Democracy and Efficiency. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keuffer, N. (2016). L’autonomie locale, un concept multidimensionnel: comment le définir, comment le mesurer et comment créer un indice d’autonomie locale comparatif. Revue Internationale De Politique Comparée, 23(4), 443–490.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keuffer, N. (2018). Does Local Autonomy Facilitate Local Government Reform Initiatives? Evidence from Switzerland. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 31(4), 426–447.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, D. S., & Pierre, J. (1990). Introduction. In D. S. King & J. Pierre (Eds.), Challenges to Local Government (pp. 1–14). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • King, D., & Stoker, G. (1996). Rethinking Local Democracy. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kjellberg, F. (1995). The Changing Values of Local Government. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 540, 40–50.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kuhlmann, S., & Bogumil, J. (2010). Kommunalisierung, Regionalisierung, Kooperation – die “neue Welle” subnationaler Verwaltungsreform. In J. Bogumil & S. Kuhlmann (Eds.), Kommunale Aufgabenwahrnehmung im Wandel: Kommunalisierung, Regionalisierung und Territorialreform in Deutschland und Europa (pp. 11–22). Wiesbaden: VS Verlg für Sozialwissenschaften.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuhlmann, S., & Bouckaert, G. (2016). Local Public-Sector Reforms in Times of Crisis. National Trajectories and International Comparisons. Governance and Public Management. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kuhlmann, S., & Wollmann, H. (2014). Introduction to Comparative Public Administration: Administrative Systems and Reforms in Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ladner, A. (2017). Autonomy and Austerity: Re-investing in Local Government. In C. Schwab, G. Bouckaert, & S. Kuhlmann (Eds.), The Future of Local Government in Europe. Lessons from Research and Practice in 31 Countries (pp. 23–52). Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lake, R. W. (1994). Negotiating Local Autonomy. Political Geography, 13(5), 423–442.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lijphart, A. (1984). Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Democracies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Loughlin, J. (2009). ‘The Hybrid State’: Reconfiguring Territorial Governance in Western Europe. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 10(1), 51–68.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Loughlin, J., Hendriks, F., & Lidström, A. (Eds.). (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mackenzie, W. J. M. (1961). Theories of Local Government. London: London School of Economics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marcou, G. (1999). L’autonomie des collectivités locales en Europe : fondements, formes et limites. In Les Entretiens de la Caisse des dépôts sur le développement local (pp. 31–83). Paris: Editions de l’Aube/SECPB.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mill, J. S. (1975 [1859]). Essay on Liberty. In R. Wollheim (Ed.), John Stuart Mill: Three Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mueller, S. (2011). The Politics of Local Autonomy: Measuring Cantonal (De)centralisation in Switzerland. Space and Polity, 15(3), 213–239.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Musgrave, R. A. (1959). The Theory of Public Finance: A Study in Public Economy. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Musgrave, R. A., & Musgrave, P. B. (1976). Public Finance in Theory and Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oates, W. E. (1972). Fiscal Federalism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oates, W. E. (1990). Decentralization of the Public Sector. In R. J. Bennet (Ed.), Decentralization, Local Governments, and Markets: Towards a Post-Welfare Agenda (pp. 43–58). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oates, W. E. (1999). An Essay on Fiscal Federalism. Journal of Economic Literature, 37(3), 1120–1149.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oates, W. E. (2001). Property Taxation and Local Government Finance. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

    Google Scholar 

  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2004). Development Evaluation: Lessons Learned on Donor Support to Decentralisation and Local Governance, DAC Evaluation Series (pp. 1–83). Paris: OECD Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Page, E. (1982). The Value of Local Autonomy. Local Government Studies, 8(4), 21–42.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Page, E. (1991). Localism and Centralism in Europe: The Political and Legal Bases of Local Self-Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press on Demand.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peters, B. G., & Pierre, J. (1998). Governance Without Government? Rethinking Public Administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 8(2), 223–243.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pierre, J. (1990). Assessing Local Autonomy. In D. S. King & J. Pierre (Eds.), Challenges to Local Government (pp. 37–54). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pollitt, C. (2005). Decentralization: A Central Concept in Contemporary Public Management. In E. Ferlie, L. E. Lynn Jr., & C. Pollitt (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Public Management (pp. 371–397). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pratchett, L. (2004). Local Autonomy, Local Democracy and the ‘New Localism’. Political Studies, 52, 358–375.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Prud’homme, R. (1994). On the Dangers of Decentralization. Policy Research Working Paper, 1252. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reddy, P., Nemec, J., & De Vries, M. (2015). The State of Local Government. Public Policy and Administration, 14(3), 160–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rhodes, R. A. W. (1996). The New Governance: Governing Without Government. Political Studies, XLIV, 652–667.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Riker, W. (1969). Six Books in Search of a Subject or Does Federalism Exist and Does It Matter. Comparative Politics, 2(1), 135–146.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Riker, W. (1975). Federalism. In F. I. Greenstein & N. W. Polsby (Eds.), Handbook of Political Science (pp. 93–172). Boston: Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodden, J. (2002). The Dilemma of Fiscal Federalism: Grants and Fiscal Performance Around the World. American Journal of Political Science, 46(3), 670–687.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rodden, J. (2004). Comparative Federalism and Decentralization: On Meaning and Measurement. Comparative Politics, 36(4), 481–500.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rodriguez-Pose, A., & Ezcurra, R. (2011). Is Fiscal Decentralization Harmful for Economic Growth? Evidence from the OECD Countries. Journal of Economic Geography, 11, 619–643.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rokkan, S., & Urwin, D. W. (1983). Economy, Territory, Identity: Politics of West European Peripheries. London: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scharpf, F. W. (1970). Demokratietheorie zwischen Utopie und Anpassung. Konstanz: Universitätsverlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scharpf, F. W. (1978). Die Theorie der Politikverflechtung: ein kurzgefasster Leitfaden. In J. J. Hesse (Ed.), Politikverflechtung im föderativen Staat. Studien zum Planungs- und Finanzierungsverbund zwischen Bund, Ländern und Gemeinden. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scharpf, F. W. (1999). Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schneider, A. (2003). Decentralization: Conceptualization and Measurement. Studies in Comparative International Development, 38(3), 32–56.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sellers, J. M., & Lidström, A. (2007). Decentralization, Local Government, and the Welfare State. Governance, 20(4), 609–632.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sharpe, L. J. (1970). Theories and Values of Local Government. Political Studies, 18(2), 153–174.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, T. (1951). Local Self-Government and Centralization. London: John Chapman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swianiewicz, P. (2004). Local Government Borrowing: Risks and Rewards. Budapest: OSI/LGI.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swianiewicz, P. (2014). An Empirical Typology of Local Government Systems in Eastern Europe. Local Government Studies, 40(2), 292–311.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tiebout, C. M. (1956). A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures. The Journal of Political Economy, 64(5), 416–424.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Treisman, D. (2007). The Architecture of Government: Rethinking Political Decentralization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tsebelis, G. (1995). Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism. British Journal of Political Science, 25(3), 289–325.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • UCLG (United Cities and Local Governments). (2008). Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World. First Global Report by United Cities and Local Governments 2008. World Bank Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • UN Habitat. (2009). International Guidelines on Decentralisation and Access to Basic Services for All. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT).

    Google Scholar 

  • van Kersbergen, K., & van Waarden, F. (2004). Governance’as a Bridge Between Disciplines: Cross-Disciplinary Inspiration Regarding Shifts in Governance and Problems of Governability, Accountability and Legitimacy. European Journal of Political Research, 43(2), 143–171.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vetter, A. (2007). Local Politics: A Resource for Democracy in Western Europe? Local Autonomy, Local Integrative Capacity, and Citizens’ Attitudes Towards Politics (Vol. 3). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, Lexington Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wollmann, H. (2004). Local Government Reforms in Great Britain, Sweden, Germany and France. Between Multi-function and Single-Purpose Organisation. Local Government Studies, 30(4), 639–665.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolman, H., McManmon, R., Bell, M., & Brunori, D. (2010). Comparing Local Government Autonomy Across States. In M. E. Bell, D. Brunori, & J. Yougman (Eds.), The Property Tax and Local Autonomy (pp. 69–114). Washington, DC: National Tax Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolman, H. (1990). Decentralization: What It Is and Why We Should Care. In R. J. Bennet (Ed.), Decentralization, Local Governments, and Markets: Towards a Post-Welfare Agenda (pp. 29–42). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolman, H., & Goldsmith, M. (1990). Local Autonomy as a Meaningful Analytic Concept. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 26(1), 3–27.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolman, H., & Goldsmith, M. (1992). Urban Politics and Policy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolman, H., McManmon, R., Bell, M., & Brunori, D. (2010). Comparing Local Government Autonomy Across States. In M. E. Bell, D. Brunori, & J. Yougman (Eds.), The Property Tax and Local Autonomy (pp. 69–114). The Lincoln Institute.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Appendix

Appendix

Table 1.1 State of countries’ ratification of the European Charter of Local Self-Government

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Ladner, A. et al. (2019). What Is Local Autonomy?. In: Patterns of Local Autonomy in Europe. Governance and Public Management. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95642-8_1

Download citation