Skip to main content

Nitrogen and Protein Parameters

  • 715 Accesses

Abstract

The usual nitrogen and protein parameters analyzed in the blood for clinical and nutritional purpose are (except hormones and metalloenzymes) mainly total proteins, albumin, and globulins. Those parameters are a reflect of the diet, but are also indicators of some health disturbances as parasitism, especially the ratio Albumin/Globulin. Other parameters as haptoglobin, pepsinogen and fibrinogen can be used as indicators of inflammation. Regarding urea, the characteristic of camel, due to his high ability to recycle nitrogen, is his sensitivity to ureas toxicity. Other non-protein nitrogen parameters (creatinine, uric acid and bilirubin) could be investigated.

Keywords

  • Bengoumi
  • Camel Calves
  • Healthy Camels
  • Young Camels
  • Control Camels

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-95562-9_4
  • Chapter length: 42 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-95562-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 4.1
Fig. 4.2
Fig. 4.3
Fig. 4.4
Fig. 4.5
Fig. 4.6
Fig. 4.7

References

  • Abdalla OM, Wasfi IA, Gadir FA (1988) The Arabian race camel normal parameters-I. Haemogram, enzymes and minerals. Comp Biochem Physiol 90A(2):231–239

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdel Aziz AR, El Meghanawy RA, Ibrahim FF, El Zahaby DI (2016) Occurrence of hydratic cyst in camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their effect on meat quality. Egypt J Chem Environ Health 2(1):48–63

    Google Scholar 

  • Abd El-Baky AA, Salem SI (2011) Clinicopathological and cytological studies on naturally infected camels and experimentally infected rats with Trypanosoma evansi. World Appl Sci J 14:42–50

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Abdelgadir SE, Wahbi AA, Idris OF (1979) Biochemical studies of some blood and plasma constituents on camel (Camelus dromedarius). In: Cockrill WR (ed) Camels and camelids. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala, pp 438–443

    Google Scholar 

  • Abd El-Hag SED, Shaddad SA, Hassan T (2005) Status of some chemical and biochemical parameters of camel blood in the rainy season in the Sudan. J Anim Vet Adv 4(8):713–715

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdo MS, Hassanien MM, Manna ME, Hamed M (1987) Electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins in the Arabian camels. Indian Vet J 64:841–844

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdoun KA, Samara EM, Okab AB, Al-Haidary AI (2012) A comparative study on seasonal variation in body temperature and blood composition of camels and sheep. J Anim Vet Adv 11(6):769–773

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Abu-Damir H, Eldirdiri NI, Adam SEI, Howarth JA, Salih YM, Idris OF (1993) Experimental copper poisoning in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Comp Pathol 108:191–208

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Abu-Damir H, Al-Haj Ali M, Abbas TA, Omer EA, Al-Fihail AM (2013) Narasin poisoning in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Comp Clin Pathol 22:305–311

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Adel EM, El-Metwaly H (2012) Effect of feed additive “exogenous enzymes” on growth performance of Maghraby camels. Life Sci J 9(4):4830–4835

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahamad SR, Alhaider AQ, Raish M, Shakeel F (2017) Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC–MS and ICP–MS. Saudi J Biol Sci 24:23–29

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmadi-Hamedani M, Ghazvinian K, Kokhaei P, Barati M, Mahdavi A (2014) Comparison of effects of age and sex on serum protein electrophoretic pattern in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Semnan, Iran. Open Vet J 4(1):4–8

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed SH, Omer SAA, Gameel AA (2009) Some normal constituents in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius). Assiut Vet Med J 55(123):163–170

    Google Scholar 

  • Aichouni A, Belhadia M, Kebir N, Aggad H (2013) Season influence on serum organic parameters of dromedarius (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. Bioch Biotech Res 1(1):8–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Aichouni A, Jeblawi R, Dellal A, Hammou H, Aggad H (2010) Breed variation in blood constituents of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. J Camelid Sci 3:19–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Alafaliq A, Ben Abdallah A, Almasaud A, Faye B (2015) The use of date blocks for supplementary feeding of growing camels. In: Konuspayeva G (ed) Proceedings of 4th conference of ISOCARD,“silk road camel: the Camelids, main stakes for sustainable development”, June 8–12, 2015, Almaty, Kazakhstan [special issue of Scientific and Practical Journal Veterinariya #2 (42) 2015], poster session, p 438

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Ali AK, Husayni HA, Power DM (1988) A comprehensive biochemical analysis of the blood of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Comp Biochem Physiol 89B(1):35–37

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Ani FK, Al-Azzawi WARA, Jermukly MS, Razzaq KK (1992) Studies on some haematological parameters of camel and llama in Iraq. Bull Anim Prod Afr 40:103–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Albomohsen H, Mamouei M, Tabatabaei S, Fayazi J (2011) Metabolite composition variations of follicular fluid and blood serum in Iranian dromedary camels during the peak breeding season. J Anim Vet Adv 10(3):327–331

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Busadah K (2007) Some biochemical and haematological indices in different breeds of camels in Saudi Arabia. Sci J King Faisal Univ (Basic Appl Sci) 8(1):131–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Haj Ali M, Adem A, Chandranath IS, Benedict S, Pathan JY, Nagelkerke N, Nyberg F, Lewis LK, Yandle TG, Nicholls GM, Frampton CM, Kazzam E (2012) Responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system. PLoS One 7(5):e37299

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Harbi MS (2012) Some hematologic values and serum biochemical parameters in male camels (Camelus dromedarius) before and during rut. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 7:1219–1226

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ali S, Ahmada N, Akhtar N, Zia-ur-Rahman NDE (2008) Metabolite contents of blood serum and fluid from small and large sized follicles in dromedary camels during the peak and the low breeding seasons. Anim Reprod Sci 108:446–456

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ali A, Refaat D, Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F (2015) Impotentia generandi in male dromedary camels: breeding soundness, haematology, biochemistry and testosterone level. Comp Clin Pathol 24:727–731

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ali A, Derar D, Tharwat M, Zeitounb MM, Alsobyil FA (2016) Dystocia in dromedary camels: prevalence, forms, risks and hematobiochemical changes. Anim Reprod Sci 170:149–156

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Jassim RAM, Shahsavari A, Owen H, Khamas W (2016) Gross pathology, biochemistry and histology of selected organs of camels suffering from suspected monensin toxicosis in Australia. J Vet Sci Technol 7(3):1–5

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Mujalli AM, Al-Naeem AA, Al-Ghamdi G, Al-Swailem A, Al-Yamani E, Shehata AM, Al-Dubaib MA, Hashad M, El-Lithy DA, Mahmoud OM, Alfayez M (2011) Cellular and biochemical blood profile in camels suffering from dubduba syndrome. Sci J King Faisal Univ (Basic Appl Sci) 12(2):165–172

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Qarawi A (1999) The chronobiological blood parameter changes as correlated to different traits of Camelus dromedarius in Saudi Arabia. J Camel Pract Res 6(1):45–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Rubikat R, Ismail ZB (2014) Biochemical analysis of serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius). Vet Sci Develop 4(1):40–42

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Saiady MY, Mogawer HH, Al-Mutairi SE, Bengoumi M, Musaad A, Gar-Elnaby A, Faye B (2015) Factors affecting feed intake, body weight, testicular size and testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) serum concentrations in peri-pubertal male camels. Afr J Agric Res 10(14):1709–1713

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alshamsi NS, Ksiksi TS, Ashraf SS (2015) Altered serum enzymes and biochemical levels in Arabian racing camels with bone fractures. J Anim Plant Sci 25(4):1072–1080

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Sobayil FA, Mousa HM (2009) Clinical and biochemical studies on wry-neck syndrome in camels in Saudi Arabia. J Camel Pract Res 16(2):179–182

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Sultan SI (2003) Studies of some normal biochemical parameters of Majaheem breed of camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. J Camel Pract Res 10(1):79–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Sultan SI (2008) Studies on hematological and certain serum biochemical values in young Magaheim dromedary camel at Al-Ahsa province. Vet Res 2(3–4):34–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Tayib O (2014) Zoonotic balantidiasis in camel from Saudi Arabia. Sch Acad J Biosci 2(7):445–447

    Google Scholar 

  • Amin ASA, Abdoun KA, Abdelatif AM (2007) Seasonal variation in blood constituents of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Pak J Biol Sci 10(8):1250–1256

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Asadi F, Shahriari A, Asadian P, Pourkabir M, Sabzikar A, Ojaghee R (2009) Serum lipid, glucose, free fatty acids and liver triglyceride in sub-adult and adult camels (Camelus dromedarius). Rev Med Vet 160(12):552–556

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ateeq G, Kouider S, Kolb E (1984) Haematology of dromedaries, cell counts, haemoglobin, proteins, urea, cholesterol, AST and ALT. Age and sex variations (in German). Archiv Exp Vet Med 38(5):664–675

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Athar Khan M, Sarwer Khan M, Ashfaq-Ul-Rehman (1992) The incidence and effects of coccidiosis on certain blood parameters in camels of Pakistan. In: International camel conference, Dubaï (UAE), 2–6 Feb 1992. R&W, England, p 406

    Google Scholar 

  • Auer R, Gleiß A, Windberger U (2015) Towards a basic understanding of the properties of camel blood in response to exercise. Emir J Food Agric 27(3):302–311

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ayoub MA, Saleh AA (1998) A comparative physiological study between camels and goats during water deprivation. In: Alhadrami G, Ayoub MA (eds) Proceedings of the third annual meeting for animal production under arid conditions, 2–3 May 98, vol 1. Al-Ain, Dubai, pp 71–87

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayoub MA, El-Khouly AA, Mohamed TM (2003) Some hematological and biochemical and steroid hormones levels in one-humped camel during different physiological conditions. Emir J Agric Sci 15(1):44–55

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Azma F, Razavi SM, Nazifi S, Rakhshandehroo E, Sanati AR (2015) A study on the status of inflammatory systems in camels naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Trop Anim Health Prod 47:909–914

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Azwai SM, Saltani H, Thomas PC, Shareha AM, El-Gammoudi F, Mohamed SO (1990) Note on cholesterol, glucose, urea and total protein concentration in serum of normal camels. Camel Newsl 7:94

    Google Scholar 

  • Babeker EA, Elmansoury YHA, Suleem AE (2011) The influence of seasons on blood constituents of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Online J Anim Feed Res 3(1):1–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Babeker EA, Elmansoury YHA, Suleem AE (2013) The influence of seasons on blood constituents of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Online J Anim Feed Res 3(1):1–8

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Badakhshan Y, Mirmahmoudi R (2016) Blood metabolites of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) versus sheep during summer heat stress. Iranian J Vet Med 10(1):65–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Baghshani H, Nazifi S, Saeb M, Saeb S (2010) Influence of road transportation on plasma concentrations of acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and ceruloplasmin, in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Comp Clin Pathol 19:193–198

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baraka TA, El-Sherif MT, Kubesy AA, Illek J (2000) Clinical studies of selected ruminal and blood constituents in dromedary camels affected by various diseases. Acta Vet Brno 69:61–68

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barakat MZ, Abdel-Fattah M (1970) Biochemical analysis of normal camel blood. Zentrabl Veterinarmed A 17:550–557

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barakat MZ, Abdel Fattah M (1971) Seasonal and sexual variations of certain constituents of normal camel blood. Zentrabl Veterinarmed A 18:174–176

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bengoumi M, Kessabi M, Hamliri A (1989) Teneurs et fractionnement des protéines sériques chez le dromadaire: effet de l’âge et du sexe. Maghreb Vet 20:31–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Bengoumi M (1992) Biochimie clinique du dromadaire et mécanismes de son adaptation à la déshydratation, Thèse de doctorat ès Sciences Agronomiques. I.A.V. Hassan II, rabat, Maroc, 184 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Bengoumi M (2008) Tolerance study of tiludronate in the dromedary camel. J Camelid Sci 1:24–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Ben-Romdhane SM, Romdhan N, Feki M, Sanhagi H, Kaabachi N (2003) Blood biochemistry in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). Rev Med Vet 154:695–702

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bhargava AK, Mehrotra PN, Banerjee S (1964) Biochemical studies on Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). V. Serum proteins and their variations with age, sex, pregnancy, rut and infection. Indian J Exp Biol 2:52–58

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Biagi G (1983) [further investigations on the seroprotein observations of Somalian Camelus dromedarius] (in Italian). Ann Fac Med Vet Pisa 35:193–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Bogin E (2000) Clinical pathology of Camelids: present and future. Rev Méd Vét 151(7):563–568

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boid R, Luckins AG, Rae PF, Gray AR, Mahmoud MM, Malik KH (1980) Immunoglobulin levels and electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins in camels infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Vet Parasitol 6:333–345

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chakir Y (2016) Réponses physiologiques au stress de pré-abattage chez le dromadaire (Camelus dromedarius), Thèse no CED00/2016. Université Hassan de Casablanca, Maroc, 217 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaudhary ZI, Iqbal J (2000) Incidence, biochemical and haematological alterations induced by natural trypanosomosis in racing dromedary camels. Acta Trop 77:209–213

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chaudhary ZI, Iqbal J, Rashid J (2003) Serum protein electrophoretic pattern in young and adult camels. Aust Vet J 81(10):625–626

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chartier C, Chartier F, Lepers J, Pesce JL (1986) Etude préliminaire de quelques paramètres sanguins usuels du dromadaire mauritanien (Camelus dromedarius). Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 39:395–401

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chavanne P, Boué A (1950) Taux normaux de l’urée et du glucose sanguins chez le dromadaire nord-africain. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 4(4):183

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chiericato GM, Warfa AA, Schiapelli KP (1986) Influence of sex of the dromedary on some constituents of the blood. Rev Zootec Vet 14(3):196–199

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Corbera JA, Morales M, Pulido M, Montoya JA, Gutierrez C (2003) An outbreak of nutritional muscular dystrophy in dromedary camels. J Appl Anim Res 23:117–122

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dalvi SH, Mantri AM, Talvelkar BA, Kulkarni BA, Patankar DD, Walawalkar M (1998) Blood metabolic profiles of Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius) under hot humid climate of Konkan region. Indian Vet J 75:217–220

    Google Scholar 

  • Dahlborn K, Benlamlih S, Zine-Filali R, Guerouali A, Hossani-Hilali I, Oukessou M (1992) Food deprivation and refeeding in the camels (Camelus dromedarius). Am J Physiol 262:R1000–R1005

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Deen A (2013) Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and endogenous creatinine clearance based glomerular filtration rate in camels to evaluate renal functions. Camel Int J Vet Sci 1(1):1–12

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DePeters EJ, Ferguson JD (1992) Non-protein nitrogen and protein distribution in the milk of cows. J Dairy Sci 75:3192–3209

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Durand M, Kchouk M (1958) Etude de quelques constants hématologiques et chimiques chez le dromadaire. Bull Acad Vet France 31:197–198

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Boshy M, Abbas H, El-Khodery S, Osman S (2009) Cytokine response and clinicopathological findings in Brucella infected camels (Camelus dromedarius). Vet Med 54(1):25–32

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • El-Deeb WM, Fouda TA (2013) Liver abscesses in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedaries): oxidative stress biomarkers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Vet Sci Technol 4:1–4

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Deeb WM, Fouda TA, El-Bahr SM (2014) Clinico-biochemical investigation of paratuberculosis of dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia: proinflammatory cytokines, Acute phase proteins and oxidative stress biomarkers. Pak Vet J 34(4):484–488

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • El-Deeb WM, Buczinski S (2015) The diagnostic and prognostic importance of oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in camels. Peer J 3:e1363 18 p

    PubMed  CrossRef  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Elias E, Yagil R (1984) Hematological and serum biochemical values in lactating camels and their newborns. Refuah Vet 41:7–13

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Elkhair NM, Hartmann H (2011) Serum protein capillary electrophoretic patterns in camels (Camelus dromedarius): influence of age and sex. In: Proceedings of the 3rd conference on the international society of camelid research and development (ISOCARD), 29 Jan–1 Feb 2012, Muscat, Oman, pp 49–52

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Nagi AH, Torki AI (2007) Chemical and biochemical composition of pregnant camel urine (Camelus dromedarius). Int J Biol Biotechnol 4(4):433–435

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Naser EMA, Khamis GFA (2009) Some hematological and blood serum biochemical indices associated with respiratory affections by camels. Assiut Vet Med J 55(123):154–162

    Google Scholar 

  • Eltohamy MM, Salama A, Youssef AEA (1986) Blood constituents in relation to the reproduction state in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Beit Trop Land Vet Med 24:425–430

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Emmanuel B, Howard BR, Emady M (1976) Urea degradation in the camel. Can J Anim Sci 56:595–601

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Etzion Z, Yagil R (1986) Renal function in camels (Camelus dromedarius) following rapid rehydration source. Physiol Zool 59(5):558–562

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Faye B, Mulato C (1991) Facteurs de variation des paramètres protéo-énergétiques, enzymatiques et minéraux dans le plasma chez le dromadaire de Djibouti. Rev Elev Med Vét Pays Trop 44:325–334

    Google Scholar 

  • Faye B, Saint-Martin G, Cherrier R, Ruffa A (1992) The influence of high dietary protein, energy and mineral intake on deficient young camel: I. Changes in metabolic profiles and growth performance. Comp Biochem Physiol 102A:409–416

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Faye B, Jouany JP, Chacornac JP, Ratovonanahary M (1995) L'élevage des grands camélidés. Analyse des initiatives réalisées en France. INRA Prod Anim 8:3–17

    Google Scholar 

  • Faye B, Seboussi R, Alhadrami G (2009) Meta-analysis of the interactions between selenium status and haematological and mineral parameters in camel blood. Trends Comp Biochem Physiol 14:25–34

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Faye B, Konuspayeva G, Almasaud A, Alafaliq A, Ben Abdallah A (2018) The effect of date-urea blocks as supplementary feeding on growth of young camels. Emr J Food Agric 30(4):320–325

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Faye B, Konupayeva G, Loiseau G (2010) Variability of urea concentration in camel milk in Kazakhstan. Dairy Sci Technol 90:707–713

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ghodsian I, Nowrouzian I, Schels HF (1978) A study of some hematological parameters in the Iranian camels. Trop Anim Health Prod 10:109–110

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ghosal AK, Apanna TC, Dwaraknath PK (1973) Studies on the seasonal variation in the blood constituents of Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Indian J Anim Sci 43:642–644

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghosal AK, Apanna TC, Dwaraknath PK (1975) A note on the effect of short-term water deprivation on certain blood characteristics in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Indian J Anim Sci 45:105–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Gihad EA, El-Gallad TT, Sooud AE, El-Nasr A, Farid MFA (1989) Feed and water intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by camels compared to sheep and goats fed low protein desert by products. In: Tisserand JL (ed) Actes du “Séminaire sur la Digestion, la Nutrition et l’Alimentation du Dromadaire”. Ouargla, Algérie, 28 Février–1 Mars 1988, Options Méditerranéennes A(2), pp 75–81

    Google Scholar 

  • Gupta L, Kumar RA, Ghanshyam T, Rajesh D, Garg R (2012) Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels. Trop Anim Health Prod 44:1689–1695

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gutierrez C, Corbera JA, Juste MC, Doreste F, Morales I (2005) An outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality associated with Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels in the Canary Islands. Vet Parasitol 130:163–168

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hamad B, Aggad H, Hadef L, Adaika A (2017) Effect of seasons on blood biochemical parameters in male dromedary camels in Algeria. Indian J Anim Res On-Line B 672:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan YM, Hoeller H, Hassan IM (1968) Observations on the blood constituents of camels in the Sudan. Sudan J Vet Sci Anim Husb 9:464–476

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan YM (1971) A note on the effect of dehydration on a camel. Sudan J Vet Sci Anim Husb 12:111–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan AB, Shawkat ME, Elatrash SM, Attah AH (1983) Comparative study on the effect of some trypanocidal drugs on serum constituents and enzymatic activity in camels. Indian Vet J 60:518–526

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hekmatimoghaddam S, Rasooli A, Sazmand A, Hamidinejat H, Jafari H, Nouri M (2011) Serobiochemical alternations in dromedary camels naturally infected with Theileria spp. In: Iranian proceedings of the XVth international congress on animal hygiene, vol 1, 7/2011, pp 455–457

    Google Scholar 

  • Heidarpour M, Mohri M, Borji H, Moghdass E (2012) Oxidative stress and trace elements in camel (Camelus dromedarius) with liver cystic echinococcosis. Vet Parasitol 187:459–463

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Higgins AJ, Kock RA (1984) The camel in health and disease. I. A guide to the clinical examination, chemical restraint and medication of the camel. Br Vet J 140:485–504

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Höhne HK, Niepage H (1985) Studies on the blood components of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) (in German). Dtsch Tierärz Wschr 92:322–327

    Google Scholar 

  • Höller HK, Hassan YM (1966) Determination of bleeding blood components of camel in Sudan (in German). Dtsch Tierärz Wschr 73:553–556

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussain M, Saeed Z, Gulsher M, Shaikh RS, Ali M, Ahmad AN, Hussain I, Akhtar M, Iqbal F (2016) A report on the molecular detection and seasonal prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei in dromedary camels from Dera Ghazi Khan District in southern Punjab (Pakistan). Trop Biomed 33(2):268–275

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hussein MF, Salah MS, Mogawer HH, Gar ElNabi AR (1992) Effect of lactation on the haemogram and certain blood constituents of the dromedary camel. J Appl Anim Res 1:43–50

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hussein YA, Al-Eknah MM, AL-Shami SA, Mandour MA, Fouda TA (2012) Coat color breed variation in blood constituents among indigenous Saudi Arabia camel strains. Mansoura Vet Med J 14(1):191–204

    Google Scholar 

  • Idris OF, Tartour G (1970) Serum urea in camels of the Sudan: its variation with age, sex and region. In: Proceedings of the 5th Vet. conference. Sudan Veterinary Association, Khartoum, Sudan

    Google Scholar 

  • Ismael AB, Swelum AA, Khalaf AF, Abouheif MA (2014) Clinical, haematological and biochemical alterations associated with an outbreak of theileriosis in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. Pak Vet J 34(2):209–213

    Google Scholar 

  • Jatkar PR, Kohli RN, Bhatt PL (1962) Quantitative biochemical studies on camel’s blood. Part III. Total serum-protein content. Indian Vet J 39(10):548–550

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jordan ER, Swanson LV (1979) Effect of crude protein on reproductive efficiency, serum total protein and albumin in the high producing dairy cow. J Dairy Sci 62:58–63

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kamal AM (2008) Some biochemical, hematological and clinical studies of selected ruminal and blood constituents in camels affected by various diseases. Res J Vet Sci 1(1):16–27

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kamili A, Bengoumi M, Oukessou M, Faye B, Lefebvre HP (2013) Assessment of glomerular filtration rate in normally hydrated and dehydrated dromedary camel by plasma exogenous creatinine clearance test. Emir J Food Agric 25(4):314–319

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss M (1997) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 5th edn. Academic, New York, p 932

    Google Scholar 

  • Karimi A, Rahbari S, Yousefi A (2015) Blood parasites of camels from central regions of Iran: comparative evaluation of various detection techniques and serum protein components. J Adv Parasitol 2(1):1–4

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kataria AK, Kataria N, Sharma KN (2000) A differential study of serum proteins profile in camel (Camelus dromedarius) Vis-à-Vis some other species. J Immunol Immunopathol 2:52–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Kataria AK, Kataria N, Sharma KN (2002) Serum protein and immunoglobulin profile in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Indian J Anim Hlth 41(1):5–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Kataria N, Kataria AK, Agarwal VK, Garg SL, Sahani MS (2003) Effect of seasonal dehydration on creatinine clearance in Indian dromedary camels. J Camel Pract Res 10(2):91–97

    Google Scholar 

  • Kataria N, Kataria AK (2004) Use of blood analytes in assessment of stress due to drought in camel. J Camel Pract Res 11(2):129–133

    Google Scholar 

  • Kataria N, Kataria AK (2006) Plasma levels of gastrin and pepsinogen in camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 13(2):141–144

    Google Scholar 

  • Kayouli C, Jouany JP, Dardillat C, Tisserand J-L (1995) Particularités physiologiques du dromadaire: conséquences pour son alimentation. Options Méditerranéennes : Série B Etudes et Recherches 13:143–155

    Google Scholar 

  • Kchouk M, Durand M (1958) Quelques dosages chimiques dans le sang des dromadaires en Tunisie. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 35:3–57

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Khadjeh GH (1998) Electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins in the Iranian one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Indian J Anim Sci 68:476–477

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Khadjeh GH (2001) Concentration of serum proteins in pregnant and non-pregnant Iranian one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 8(1):89–90

    Google Scholar 

  • Knight PK, Cluer D, Manefield GW, Gorde AK (1994) Haematology in the racing camel at rest: seasonal and training variations. In: Saltin B, Rose RJ (eds) The racing camel. Physiology, metabolic functions and adaptations. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 150:19–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Konuspayeva GS (2007) Variabilité physico-chimique et biochimique du lait des grands camélidés (Camelus dromedarius, Camelus bactrianus et hybrides) au Kazakhstan, PhD Université de Montpellier II, France, Sciences des aliments, 253 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Kouider S, Kolb E (1982) Concentrations of glucose and urea in serum of camels. Monatsch Vet Med 37(4):140–142

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kouider S, Ateeq G, Kolb E (1988) Studies into levels of total proteins, urea, total fat, cholesterol and bilirubin in blood plasma of camels in the course of one year (in German). Mh Vet Med 43:139–142

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar M, Ghosh P, Banerjee S (1961) Biochemical studies on Indian camel. I. Blood proteins and lipids. J Sci Ind Res 20C:236–238

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Li WX, Hai WJ (2014) Studies of sulphur-induced copper deficiency in the Bactrian camel. J Anim Vet Adv 13(14):886–890

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu ZP (2003) Studies of the haematology and trace element status of adult Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China. Vet Res Commun 27:397–405

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mahmud HM, Abdulhamid HM, Locatelli A (1984) Water deprivation effects on the hematological and hematochemical pictures of Camelus dromedarius. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 37:313–317

    Google Scholar 

  • Mal G, Sena DS, Sahani MS (2006) Haemato-biochemical changes in camels infested with manage during winter and summer season. J Camel Pract Res 13(2):174–174

    Google Scholar 

  • Malik A, Al-Senaidy A, Skrzypczak-Jankun E, Jankun J (2013) Isolation and characterization of serum albumin from Camelus dromedarius. Exp Ther Med 6:519–524

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McGilvery R, Goldstein G(1983) Biochemistry: a functional approach, III edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 909 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • McGrane JJ, Kenyon SJ (1985) Laboratory diagnosis manual for field veterinarians in the Sudan. Overseas Development Administration Publications, London, pp 76–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur GN, Ghosal AK, Bhatia JS (1981) Note on certain blood constituents in the Indian camel. Indian J Anim Sci 51(12):1179–1180

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mehrotra V, Gupta ML (1989) Seasonal variations in certain blood constituents in camel. Indian J Anim Sci 59:1559–1561

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohammed AK, Sackey AKB, Tekdek LB, Gefu JO (2007) Serum biochemical values of healthy adult one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) introduced into a sub-humid climate in Shika-Zaria. Nigeria J Camel Pract Res 14(2):191–194

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohri M, Moosavian HR, Hadian MJ (2008) Plasma biochemistry of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius): effects of anticoagulants and comparison with serum. Res Vet Sci 85:554–558

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Momenah MA (2014) Some blood parameters of one humped she-camels (Camelus dromedaries) in response to parasitic infection. Life Sci J 11(5):118–123

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moolchandani A, Sareen M (2016) Blood biochemical study in Trypanosomiasis infected camel (Camelus dromedarius). Res Rev J Vet Sci 2(1):41–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Mousa HM, Ali KE, Hume ID (1983) Effects of water deprivation on urea metabolism in camels, desert sheep and desert goats fed dry desert grass. Comp Biochem Physiol 74A(3):715–720

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Muhammad BF, Aliyu D, Njidda AA, Madigawa IL (2011) Some haematological, biochemical and hormonal profile of pregnant and non-pregnant she-camels (Camelus dromedarius) raised in a Sudan savanna zone in Nigeria. J Camel Pract Res 18(1):73–77

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagpal AK, Roy AK, Chirania BL, Patil NV (2011) Growth, nutrient utilization and serum profile in camel calves as affected by dietary protein levels. Indian J Anim Nut 28(2):166–171

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Narnaware SD, Nagarajan G, Dahiya SS (2015) Hemato-biochemical studies in Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius) affected by contagious ecthyma. Indian J Vet Pathol 39(2):168–170

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nazifi S, Maleki K (1998) Biochemical analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult camels (Camelus dromedarius). Res Vet Sci 65:83–84

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nazifi S, Oryan A, Bahrami S, Razavi SM (2009) Evaluation of haematological and serum biochemical parameters in Iranian camels (Camelus dromedarius) infected with haemotrophic mycoplasma (Eperythrozoon) spp. Comp Clin Pathol 18:329–332

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nazifi S, Oryan AM, Ansari-Lari M, Tabandeh MR, Mohammadalipour A, Gowharnia M (2012) Evaluation of sialic acids and their correlation with acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid a) in clinically healthy Iranian camels (Camelus dromedarius). Comp Clin Pathol 21:383–387

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ntiranyibagira E, Patil NV, Bhagwat SR, Lateef A, Xu K, Liu H (2015) Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. Anim Nutr 1:356–361

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Omer SA, Salawa ME, Khougali H, Gussey AA, Samad HA (2010) Studies on some biochemical and haematological indices of Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius). Sudan Univ. Sci. Technol. Bull., pp 1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Omer SA, Khougali SME, Agab H, Samad GHA (2016) Studies on some biochemical and haematological indices of Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius). http://www.sustech.edu/staff_publications/20090615152717900.pdf

  • Omidi A, Zh S, Montazer-Torbati MB, Mostafai M (2014) Metabolic profile of pregnant, non-pregnant and male two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) of Iran. Iran J Vet Med 8(4):235–242

    Google Scholar 

  • Omidi A, Fathi MH, Asiaban M (2015) Elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the last trimester of pregnancy of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Iran J Vet Med 9(4):249–255

    Google Scholar 

  • Orliac D (1980) Contribution à l’étude de la biochimie sanguine de dromadaires et de chèvres sahariens, Thèse doct. Vét., Toulouse, France, No 71

    Google Scholar 

  • Orsonneau JL, Massoubre C, Cabanes M, Lustenberger P (1992) Simple and sensitive determination of urea in serum and urine. Clin Chem 38(5):619–623

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Osman TEA, Al-Busadah KA (2000) Effects of age and lactation on some biochemical constituents of camel blood in Saudi Arabia. J Camel Pract Res 7(2):149–152

    Google Scholar 

  • Osman TEA, Al-Busadah KA (2003) Normal concentrations of twenty biochemical parameters of she-camels, cows and ewes in Saudi Arabia. Pak J Biol Sci 6(14):1253–1256

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Osman FA, Gaadee H, Sayed GA (2014) Clinico-hematological and biochemical changes in camels affected with gastro-intestinal parasites. Int J Adv Vet Med Sci 8(5):154–161

    Google Scholar 

  • Ouajd S, Kamel B (2009) Physiological particularities of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and experimental implications. Scand J Lab Anim Sci 36(1):19–29

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Patodkar VR, Somkuwar AP, Parekar S, Khade N (2010) Influence of sex on certain biochemical parameters in nomadic camels (Camelus dromedarius) nearby Pune, in Maharashtra. Vet World 3(3):115–117

    Google Scholar 

  • Pegram RG, Scott JM (1976) The prevalence and diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels in southern Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 8:20–27

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perk K, Lobl K (1961) A study of the serum proteins and lipoproteins of the camel and their relation of its resistance to heat and thirst. Refuah Vet 18:163–168

    Google Scholar 

  • Poonia R, Srivastava A, Sena S, Srivastava M (2015) A study on serum proteins of camel (Camelus dromedaries) maintained on different diets. Int J Basic Appl Sci 4(1):1–4

    Google Scholar 

  • Read BE (1925) Chemical constituents of camel’s urine. J Biol Chem 64:615–617

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rezakhani A, Nazifi HS, Maghrebi GM (1997) Studies on normal haematological and biochemical parameters of Turkmen camel in Iran. J Camel Pract Res 4(1):41–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Roseler DK, Ferguson JD, Sniffen CJ, Herrema J (1993) Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 76:525–534

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sadiek AH, Saleh MA (2006) Implications of serum proteins as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of hepatic diseases in camels. In: Proceedings of the international scientific conference on camels. Part II, Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia, 10–12 May 2006, pp 904–914

    Google Scholar 

  • Saeed A, Afzal M, Saeed A (1995) Effect of storage on some constituents of camel serum. Aust Vet J 72:212–215

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Saeed A, Hussein MM, Khan IA, Chand G, El-Yousuf RA (2004) Effect of sex and age on blood biochemical profile in camel. J Camel Pract Res 11(1):73–77

    Google Scholar 

  • Saeed A, Khan IA, Hussein MM (2009) Change in biochemical profile of pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) at term. Comp Clin Pathol 18(2):139–143

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sahraoui N, Doudou A, Douadji O, Babelhadj B, Hornick JL (2016) Impact of natural vegetation on some biochemical parameters of the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. J Camelid Sci 9:62–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Saini N, Singh GP, Nagpal AK (2007) Nutrient utilization from cluster bean straw, supplemented with urea and Prosopis cineraria leaves in growing camel. Indian J Dairy Sci 60:342–344

    Google Scholar 

  • Salman R, Afzal M (2004) Seasonal variations in hematological and serum biochemical parameters in racing camels. J Camel Sci 1:63–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Sarwar A, Majeed MA (1997) Interrelationships between 30 parameters of blood in normal one-humped camel in summer. J Camel Pract Res 4(1):35–39

    Google Scholar 

  • Sazmand A, Rasooli A, Nouri M, Hamidinejat H, Hekmatimoghaddam S (2011) Serobiochemical alterations in subclinically affected dromedary camels with Trypanosoma evansi in Iran. Pak Vet J 31(3):223–226

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt-Nielsen B, Schmidt-Nielsen K, Houpt TR, Jarnum SA (1957) Urea excretion in the camel. Am J Physiol 188:477–484

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sellaouati K (1984) Contribution à l’établissement des paramètres biochimiques sanguins du dromadaire, Thèse Méd. Vét. Sidi Thabet, Tunisie

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaheen HM (2001) The effect of feed and water deprivation on ingestive behaviour and blood constituents in camels: comparison with sheep and goats. J Camel Pract Res 8(2):153–162

    Google Scholar 

  • Shukla MK, Khan MJZ, Pathan MM, Siddiquee GM, Latif A (2009) Biochemical profile of uncastrated male Kutchi camel during the breeding season. J Camel Pract Res 16(1):213–215

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith HW, Silvette H (1928) Note on the nitrogen excretion of camels. J Biol Chem 78:409–411

    Google Scholar 

  • Snow DH, Billah A, Ridha A (1988) Effects of maximal exercise on the blood composition of the racing camel. Vet Rec 123:311–312

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Soliman MK, El-Aroumsi S (1965) Serum bilirubin levels in Egyptian buffaloes and camels. Vet Rec 77:633

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Soliman MK, Shaker M (1967) Cytological and biochemical studies on the blood of adult she-camels. Indian Vet J 44:989–995

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stahl J (1963) Studies of the blood ammonia in liver disease. Its diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic significance. Ann Intern Med 58:1–24

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Swelum AA, Ismael AB, Khalaf AF, Abouheif MA (2014) Clinical and laboratory findings associated with naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 58:229–233

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tabatabaei Naeini A, Nazifi S (2001) Biochemical and cytological properties of blood and peritoneal fluid in clinically healthy adult camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 8:123–126

    Google Scholar 

  • Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F (2015) The impact of racing on serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins in racing dromedary camels. Comp Clin Pathol 24:575–579

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vérité R, Rétif S, Faverdin P, (1995) Milk urea as an index for nutritive protein balance urinary N excretion in dairy cows on conserved diets. In: Proceedings of the VII symposium on protein metabolism nutrition, Estaeion Zooteeniea Nacional, Vale de Santazem, 24–27 May 1995, pp 33–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Visek WJ (1984) Ammonia: its effects on biological systems, metabolic hormones, and reproduction. J Dairy Sci 67:481–498

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wensvoort J, Kyle DJ, Orskov ER, Bourke DA (2001) Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld. Rangifer 21(1):45–48

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yadav SB, Bissa UK (1998) Factors affecting some blood constituents in camels—a review. In: Proceedings of the 3rd annual meeting for animal production under arid conditions, vol 2. UAE University Publications, Al-Ain, pp 32–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Yagil R, Berlyne GM (1977) Glucose loading and dehydration in the camel. J Appl Physiol 42(5):690–693

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yagil R (1993) Renal function and water metabolism in the dromedary. In: Bourke E, Mallick NP, Pollak VE (eds) Moving points in nephrology. Contributions to neprology, vol 102. Karger, Basel, pp 161–170

    Google Scholar 

  • Yagoub IA (1988) Studies on haematological parameters and some biochemical blood constituents of Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius). Acta Vet Brno 38:99–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Yousif HS, Omer SA, Ahmed SH (2016) Influence of thermal environment change on blood metabolites, leukocytic and erythrocytic indices and clinical parameters of in-door camel (Camelus dromedaries). Glob J Biol Agric Health Sci 5(1):20–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Youssef SY, Yasien S, Ali Mousa WH, Nasr SM, El-Kelesh EAM, Mahran KM, Abd-El-Rahman AH (2015) Vector identification and clinical, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological characteristics of camel (Camelus dromedarius) theileriosis in Egypt. Trop Anim Health Prod 47:649–656

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zaher H, El-Zahar H, Al Sharifi S, Shety T (2017) Alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters affecting the reproductive performance in female camels (Camelus dromedaries). Int J Vet Health Sci Res 5(1):155–160

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeidan AEB, Abd El-Salam AM, El-Malky OM, Ahmadi EA, Sarhan DMA, Daader AH (2008) Biochemical and histological changes of the ovary of the dromedary camel during breeding and non-breeding seasons. Egypt J Basic Appl Physiol 7:287–308

    Google Scholar 

  • Faye B, Konuspayeva G, Almasaud A, Alafaliq A, Ben Abdallah A (2018) The effect of date-urea blocks as supplementary feeding on growth of young camels. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 30 (4):320-325

    Google Scholar 

  • Rezakhani A, Nazifi Habibabadi S, Maghrebi Ghojogh M (1997) Studies on normal haematological and biochemical parameters of Turkmen camel in Iran. J Camel Pract Res 4(1): 41-44Aichouni A, Belhadia M, Kebir N, Aggad H (2013) Season influence on serum organic parameters of dromedarius (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. Bioch Biotech Res 1(1): 8-12Abd El-Baky A A, Salem S I (2011) Clinicopathological and cytological studies on naturally infected camels and experimentally infected rats with Trypanosoma evansi. World appl Sci J 14: 42-50

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Faye, B., Bengoumi, M. (2018). Nitrogen and Protein Parameters. In: Camel Clinical Biochemistry and Hematology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95562-9_4

Download citation