Traumatic Brain Injury in the National Football League

  • Renata Areza-Fegyveres


The following chapter is going to encompass a different perspective of concussion and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) linked to the National Football League (NFL). The existence of brain trauma/concussion centers, specialized neurologists, and multidisciplinary care teams and the creation of concussion policies and action plans are results of the last two decades of scientific findings. Over this long period of time, concussion protocols to be applied during football games were created and updated. Concussion policies and laws were built and approved in several states all over the USA. There were educating programs for coaches, physical trainers, and teachers in local schools and teams. Information about concussion in sport was broadcasted widely and local communities became engaged in protecting their players/students. At present, it’s safer to play American football than 20 years ago.


Traumatic brain injury National Football League Concussion Cognition Chronic traumatic encephalopathy Football player Policy 


  1. 1.
  2. 2. “Get a Heads Up on Concussion in Sports Policies”. Information for Parents, Coaches, and School & Sports Professionals. CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention.
  3. 3.
    Washington State. Engrossed House Bill 1824, Chapter 475, Laws of 2009, 61st Legislature, 2009 Regular Session. Effective July 26, 2009. Available from: SL.pdf. Accessed 3 Jan 2011.
  4. 4.
    Oregon State. Senate Bill 348. 75th Oregon Legislative Assemble-2009 Regular Session. Avaiable from: Accessed 3 July 2011.
  5. 5.
    Map of Concusssion in Sports Legislation. National Conference of State Legislatures. Accessed 13 May 2013.
  6. 6.
    McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Johnston K, Dvorak J, Aubry M, Molloy M, Cantu R. Consensus Statement on concussion in sport – The 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, held in Zurich, November 2008. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:755–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8., by Adan Stites, February 4th 2018.
  9. 9.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renata Areza-Fegyveres
    • 1
  1. 1.University of São Paulo, School of Medicine – University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations