Skip to main content

Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources in Macedonia

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Forests of Southeast Europe Under a Changing Climate

Part of the book series: Advances in Global Change Research ((AGLO,volume 65))

Abstract

Conservation of forest biological diversity, which includes forest genetic resources, is essential for sustaining the productive value of forests, and for maintaining the health and vitality of forest ecosystems and thereby maintaining their protective, environmental and cultural roles. The purpose of conserving of forest genetic resources is to maintain hereditary variation in species and local populations far into the future so that their viability and adaptability would be sufficient to cope with changing environmental conditions. Since forest genetic resources are essential part of the adaptation processes of populations and tree species in a changing environment, their conservation and appropriate management have a crucial importance for sustainable forest management. Thus, forests need to be managed in a way that ensures their sustainable utilization, safeguarding the ecological process and genetic diversity essential for the maintenance of the resource base. In this paper a general introduction is given to the state of forest genetic resources conservation in FYR Macedonia with comprehensive overview of policies with respect to their conservation and management. Based on the current situation of conservation of forest genetic resources, some strategic suggestions concerning the future development of genetic conservation is given, taking into consideration the conservation objectives and future trends of great impact on existing forest genetic resources. National policies and regulatory frameworks that target forest genetic resources in Macedonia are partial and inadequate. Most relevant policies neglect the importance of forest genetic resources, but rather use it in the context of biological diversity. Sound social and economic policies are needed at national level to ensure the integration of forest genetic resources into wider national forest policy frameworks and thereby promote the sustainable management of forest genetic resources.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alexandrov, A. H., & Andonovski, V. (2011). EUFORGEN technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use of Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce). Rome: Bioversity International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andonoski, A. (1974). Application of genetical principles on the production of forest seeds (pp. 43–67). Forest review 5 and 6 Skopje, Macedonia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andonoski, A. (1988). The state of Macedonian forest genofund and measures for its conservation (pp. 144–152). X Congress of dendrologists, Sofia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andonoski, A. (1994). Genetics and tree improvement (pp. 226–261). Skopje.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andonoski, A. (1998). Multy-country forestry program (National report for the Republic of Macedonia), Skopje, Macedonia (pp. 18–34).

    Google Scholar 

  • Andonovski, V. (1995). Adaptive capability of some introduced forest tree species (pp. 82–94). Master thesis, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Forestry – Skopje, Macedonia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andonovski, V., & Velkovski, N. (2011). Conservation of Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce Griseb.) genetic resources in Pelister National Park. eco.mont, 3(1), 49–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Behm, A., Becker, A., Dorlinger, H., Franke, A., Kleinschmit, J., Melchior, G. H., Muhs, H. J., Schmitt, H. P., Stephan, B. R., Tabel, U., Weisberger, H., & Widmaier, T. (1997). Concept for the conservation of forest genetic resources in the Federal republic of Germany. Silvae Genetica, 46, 24–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • CBD. (2003). Handbook of the convention on biological diversity (2nd ed.). Montreal: Secretariat of the CBD.

    Google Scholar 

  • CBD [Convention on Biological Diversity]. (2011). Nagoya protocol on access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization to the convention on biological diversity. Text and annex. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. EU [European Union]. 2014. Regulation 1143/2014 on invasive alien species.

    Google Scholar 

  • CBD FIFTH NATIONAL REPORT to the Convention on Biological Diversity of the Republic of Macedonia. (2014). Ministry of environment and physical planning. Skopje.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Vries, S. M. G., Alan, M., Bozzano, M., Burianek, V., Collin, E., Cottrell, J., Ivankovic, M., Kelleher, C. T., Koskela, J., Rotach, P., Vietto, L., & Yrjänä, L. (2015). Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees and establishment of a core network of dynamic conservation units. Rome: European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN), Bioversity International xii + 40 p.

    Google Scholar 

  • European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). (2008). The European bioeconomy in 2030, BECOTEPS –Bio-economy technology platforms (pp. 5–22).

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations]. (2014). State of the world’s forest genetic resources. Rome: FAO.

    Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2014). The state of the worlds forest genetic resources. Rome: FAO.

    Google Scholar 

  • FOREST EUROPE. (2015). State of Europe’s forests 2015. Spain: FOREST EUROPE Liaison Unit Madrid.

    Google Scholar 

  • FOREST EUROPE/UNECE/FAO. (2011). State of Europe’s forests 2011. Status and trends in sustainable forest management. Aas: FOREST EUROPE Liaison Unit Oslo.

    Google Scholar 

  • Geburek, T., & Konrad, H. (2008). Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked. Conservation Biology, 22(2), 267–274.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graudal, L., Kjær, E., Thomsen A., & Larsen, A. B.. (1997). Planning national programmes for conservation of forest genetic resources (Technical Note 48). Humlebaek: Danida Forest Seed Centre.

    Google Scholar 

  • Isajev, V., Fady, B., Semerci, H., & Andonovski, V. (2004). EUFORGEN technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for European black pine (Pinus nigra). Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koskela, J., Lefèvre, F., Schueler, S., & and 19 others. (2013). Translating conservation genetics into management: Pan-European minimum requirements for dynamic conservation units of forest tree genetic diversity. Biological Conservation, 157, 39–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Law on Environment (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia no. 53/05, 81/05, 24/07, 159/08, 83/09, 48/10, 124/10, 51/11, 123/12, 13/13, 163/13, 41/14). Skopje.

    Google Scholar 

  • Law on Forests (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 64 from 22/05/2009). Skopje.

    Google Scholar 

  • Law on Nature Protection (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 67 from 12/10/2004). Skopje.

    Google Scholar 

  • Law on Reproductive material of Forest Trees (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No.55/07 and 148/11). Skopje.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayer, P., & Buck, A. (2005). A look at Pan-European forest policy: The ministerial conference on the protection of forests in Europe and the ‘Living Forest Summit’. In T. Geburek & J. Turok (Eds.), Conservation and management of forest genetic resources in Europe (pp. 33–43). Zvolen: Arbora Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Namkoong, G. (1998). Forest genetics and conservation in Europe. In J. Turok, C. Palmberg-Lerche, T. Skrøppa, & A. S. Quédraogo (Eds.), Conservation of forest genetic resources in Europe, proceedings of the European forest genetic resources workshop, 21 November 1995, Sopron, Hungary (pp. 3–10). Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orlović, S., Ivanković, M., Andonovski, V., Stojnić, S., & Isajev, V. (2014). Forest genetic resources to support global bioeconomy. Annals of Silvicultural Research, 38(2), 2014: 51–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • Palmberg-Lerche, C., Turok, J. & Sigaud, P. (2004). Conservation and management of forest genetic resources in Europe. In Th. Geburek, & J. Turok (Eds.), Contributions of a training course. Gmunden. 30 April–11 May 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rajora, O. P., & Mosseler, A. (2001). Challenges and opportunities for conservation of forest genetic resources. Euphytica, 118(2), 197–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Šijačić-Nikolić, M., & Milovanović, J. (2010). Konzervacija i usmereno korišćenje šumskih genetičkih resursa. Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu Šumarski fakultet 200p.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strategy for Sustainable Development of Forestry. (2009). Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water economy. Skopje.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tessier du Cros, E. (2001). Forest genetic resources management and conservation. France as a case of study. Ministry of agriculture and fisheries. Paris: Bureau of Genetic Resources and Commission of Forest Genetic Resources.

    Google Scholar 

  • Young, A. G., & Clarke, G. M. (2000). Genetics, demography and viability of fragmented populations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vlatko Andonovski .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Andonovski, V., Velkovski, N. (2019). Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources in Macedonia. In: Šijačić-Nikolić, M., Milovanović, J., Nonić, M. (eds) Forests of Southeast Europe Under a Changing Climate. Advances in Global Change Research, vol 65. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95267-3_4

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics