Complexity Challenges in Development of Cyber-Physical Systems

  • Martin TörngrenEmail author
  • Ulf Sellgren
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10760)


In embarking towards Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) with unprecedented capabilities it becomes essential to improve our understanding of CPS complexity and how we can deal with it. We investigate facets of CPS complexity and the limitations of Collaborating Information Processing Systems (CIPS) in dealing with those facets. By CIPS we refer to teams of humans and computer-aided engineering systems that are used to develop CPS. Furthermore, we specifically analyze characteristic differences among software and physical parts within CPS. The analysis indicates that it will no longer be possible to rely only on architectures and skilled people, or process and model/tool centered approaches. The tight integration of heterogeneous physical, cyber, CPS components, aspects and systems, results in a situation with interfaces and interrelations everywhere, each requiring explicit consideration. The role of model-based and computer aided engineering will become even more essential, and design methodologies will need to deeply consider interwoven systems and software aspects, including the hidden costs of software.


Cyber-Physical Systems Complex systems Complexity Complexity management Systems engineering Software engineering 



Feedback and insights from Erik Herzog (SAAB), Martin Nilsson (RISE) and Tor Ericson (ÅF) are greatly acknowledged. We also acknowledge valuable feedback from the anonymous reviewers. This work has been partially supported by the European Commission H2020 projects Platforms4CPS and CPSE-Labs.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

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