Advertisement

Broadening the Knowledge Base of Small-Scale Fisheries through a Food Systems Framework: A Case Study of the Lake Superior Region

  • Kristen LowittEmail author
  • Charles Z. Levkoe
  • Andrew M. Song
  • Gordon M. Hickey
  • Connie Nelson
Chapter
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 21)

Abstract

Lake Superior is the largest and northernmost of the Great Lakes of North America. It supports a diversity of wildlife and fish species, along with commercial, recreational, and Indigenous fisheries that make vital contributions to nutrition, livelihoods, cultures, and food systems. However, this diversity of social and cultural values is not fully reflected in management practices that tend towards a ‘resourcist’ approach. This chapter seeks to ‘broaden the scope’, proposing a food systems framework as a way of grappling with the wicked problem of Lake Superior fisheries governance. Using a food systems framework, we look at the different values associated with fisheries, including the objective, subjective, and relational contributions they make to Lake Superior food systems. We explore these food-related values attached to fisheries by presenting three illustrative examples: The fisheries of Batchewana First Nation; Eat the Fish, a small business marketing local fish through alternative food networks in Northwestern Ontario; and Bodin’s Fisheries in Wisconsin, a regional fish processor and retail outlet. We conclude by identifying ways of strengthening fisheries contributions to regional food systems and offer a set of transdisciplinary questions on fishery-food system linkages that may assist others in ‘broadening the scope’ of fisheries governance.

Keywords

Food systems Small-scale fisheries Coastal communities Great Lakes Lake Superior 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to all the research participants who contributed their time to be part of this project. We also acknowledge conceptual input from the Food: Locally Embedded, Globally Engaged (FLEdGE) research team. This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

References

  1. Batchewana First Nation (2017) Notice of assertions: Sovereignty. http://batchewana.ca/about/sovereignty/. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  2. Batchewana First Nation (2018) Natural resources. http://batchewana.ca/departments/natural-resources. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  3. Bell J et al (2015) Optimising the use of nearshore fish aggregating devices for food security in the Pacific Islands. Mar Policy 56:98–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkes F (2010) Shifting perspectives on resource management: resilience and the reconceptualization of ‘natural resources’ and ‘management.’. MAST 9(1):13–40Google Scholar
  5. Blair P (1996–1997) Solemn promises and solum rights: the Saugeen Ojibway fishing grounds and R. V. Jones and Nadjiwon. Ottawa Law Rev 28:125–143Google Scholar
  6. Brenden TO, Brown RW, Ebener MP et al (2013) Great Lakes commercial fisheries: historical overview and prognoses for the future. In: Taylor W, Lynch AJ, Leonard NJ (eds) Great Lakes fisheries policy and management. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, pp 339–397Google Scholar
  7. Charles A (2005) Toward sustainable and resilient fisheries: a fishery-system approach to overcoming the factors of unsustainability. http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0312e/A0312E13.htm. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  8. Dey M, Gosh K, Valmonte-Santos et al (2016) Economic impact of climate change and climate change adaptation strategies for fisheries sector in Solomon Islands: implication for food security. Mar Policy 67:171–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feenstra G (2002) Creating space for sustainable food systems: lessons from the field. Agric Hum Values 19(2):99–106. http://www.glfc.org/research/humandimensions.pdf. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  10. Gaden M, Goddard C, Read J (2013) Multi-jurisdictional management of the shared Great Lakes fishery: transcending conflict and diffuse political authority. In: Taylor W, Lynch A, Leonard N (eds) Great Lakes fisheries management and policy: a bi-national perspective. Michigan State University Press, Michigan, pp 305–338Google Scholar
  11. Henquinet J, Dobson T (2006) The public trust doctrine and sustainable ecosystems: a Great Lakes fisheries case study. N Y Univ Environ Law J 14(2):322–373Google Scholar
  12. Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (2010) The Government of Canada’s approach to implementation of the inherent right and the negotiation of aboriginal self-government. http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100031843/1100100031844. Accessed 16 Apr 2018
  13. Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (2009) Fisheries and coastal governance as a wicked problem. Mar Policy 33:553–560.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2008.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson D, Acott T, Stacey N, Urquhart J (eds) (2018) Social well-being and the values of small-scale fisheries. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  15. Krantzberg G, Manno JP (2010) Renovation and innovation: it’s time for the Great Lakes regime to respond. Water Resour Manag 24:4273–4285.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-010-9658-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Langston N (2017) Sustainable Lake superior: an extraordinary lake in a changing world. Yale University Press, New HavenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Levkoe CZ, Lowitt K, Nelson C (2017) “Fish as food”: exploring a food sovereignty approach to small-scale fisheries. Mar Policy 85:65–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.08.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loring PA, Gerlach SC, Harrison H (2013) Seafood as local food: food security and locally caught seafood on Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula. J Agric Food Syst Community Dev 3(3):13–30.  https://doi.org/10.5304/jafscd.2013.033.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Loring PA, Harrison HL, Gerlach SC (2014) Local perceptions of the sustainability of Alaska’s Cook Inlet salmon fisheries. Soc Nat Resour 27(2):185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lowitt K (2013) Examining fisheries contributions to community food security: findings from a household seafood consumption survey on the west coast of Newfoundland. J Hunger Environ Nutr 8(2):221–241.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19320248.2013.786668 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lowitt K, Johnston-Weiser D, Lauzon R et al (2018) On food security and access to fish in the Saugeen Ojibway nation, Lake Huron, Canada. Great Lakes Res 44(1):174–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2017.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McCrimmon D (2002) Sustainable fisheries management in the great lakes: scientific and operational challenges. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 7:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McLaughlin C, Krantzberg G (2012) An appraisal of management pathologies in the Great Lakes. Sci Total Environ 416:40–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McNeil K (2007) The jurisdiction of inherent right aboriginal governments. All papers. 261. http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/all_papers/261. Accessed 18 Apr 2018
  25. Minnesota Sea Grant (2014, October 23) Lake Superior’s fish species. http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/fisheries/superior_fish_species. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  26. Nelson C, Stroink M (2014) Accessibility and viability: a complex adaptive systems approach to a wicked problem for the local food movement. J Agric Food Syst Community Dev 4(4):191–206.  https://doi.org/10.5304/jafscd.2014.044.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nelson C, Lowitt K, Nagy M et al (2013) Future research approaches to encourage small-scale fisheries in the local food movement. J Agric Food Syst Community Dev 3(4):177–181.  https://doi.org/10.5304/jafscd.2013.034.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Norman E (2015) Governing transboundary waters: Canada, the United States, and indigenous communities. Routledge Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Olson J, Clay PM, da Silva P (2014) Putting the seafood in sustainable food systems. Mar Policy 43:104–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ontario Commercial Fisheries Association (n.d.) Quotas. http://www.ocfa.ca/fisheries-industry/quotas. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  31. Song A (2018) How to capture small-scale fisheries’ many contributions to society? – introducing the ‘value-contribution matrix’ and applying it to the case of a swimming crab fishery in South Korea. In: Johnson D, Acott T, Stacy N, Urquhart J (eds) Social well-being and the values of small-scale fisheries. Springer, Cham, pp 125–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Song AM, Temby O, Krantzberg G et al (2017) Institutional features of U.S.-Canadian transboundary fisheries governance: organizations and networks, formal and informal. In: Temby O, Stoett P (eds) Towards continental environmental policy? North American transnational networks and governance. SUNY Press, Albany, pp 156–179Google Scholar
  33. Stacey N, Steenbergen DJ, Clifton J et al (2018) Understanding social wellbeing and values of small-scale fisheries amongst the Sama-Bajau of archipelagic Southeast Asia. In: Johnson D, Acott T, Stacy N, Urquhart J (eds) Social well-being and the values of small-scale fisheries, Springer, Cham, pp 97–123Google Scholar
  34. Suzuki D (2016, December 1) Reconciliation requires recognizing rights-based fishing. [Blog post]. http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/science-matters/2016/12/reconciliation-requires-recognizing-rights-based-fishing/. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  35. Tansey G, Worsley T (1995) The food system: a guide. Routledge Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. The Lake Superior Partnership (2016) Lake Superior lakewide action and management plan 2015–2019. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-10/documents/lake_superior_lamp_2015-2019.pdf. Accessed 5 Apr 2018
  37. Tobias J (2015) We are the land: researching environmental repossession with Anishinaabe elders dissertation. Western University, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Turner N, Berkes F, Stephenson J et al (2013) Blundering intruders: extraneous impacts on two indigenous food systems. Hum Ecol 41:563–574.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-013-9591-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristen Lowitt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Charles Z. Levkoe
    • 2
  • Andrew M. Song
    • 3
    • 4
  • Gordon M. Hickey
    • 5
  • Connie Nelson
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of GeographyBrandon UniversityBrandonCanada
  2. 2.Canada Research Chair in Sustainable Food Systems, Department of Health SciencesLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada
  3. 3.Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  4. 4.WorldFishHoniaraSolomon Islands
  5. 5.Department of Natural Resource SciencesMcGill UniversitySainte-Anne-de-BellevueCanada
  6. 6.Food Security Research NetworkLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

Personalised recommendations