Using the Students’ Levels of Preparation and Confidence as Feedback Information in Quiz-Based Learning Activities

  • Pantelis M. Papadopoulos
  • Antonis NatsisEmail author
  • Nikolaus Obwegeser
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 865)


This paper examines ways to enrich the feedback information students receive in closed-type quiz activities that include a revision phase (i.e., students are allowed to change their initial answers after they receive information from their peers, teacher, or system). Typically, in such activities, the information students receive is based on the percentage of students under each possible question choice. The conducted study analyzes the potential of two additional variables, namely the students’ level of preparation and confidence. Both variables are self-reported and, therefore, subjective. During the Fall semester 2016, 91 sophomore students enrolled in an Information Systems course participated in the study for five weeks. The activity was taking place during the first 20 min of each class. Students had to go through three phases and (a) answer a multiple-choice quiz with 8 questions and 4 options for each question, (b) receive feedback based on the whole classroom population, and (c) see the correct answer and discuss them with the teacher in the lecture that follows. The students were randomly grouped into four conditions, based on the feedback they received. The control group only received information on the percentage of students that selected each choice, the Confidence group received feedback on the percentage and the average level of confidence of students that selected each choice, the Preparation group received feedback on the percentage and the average level of preparation of students that selected each choice, and finally the Both group received feedback on the percentage and both the average level of confidence and preparation of students that selected each choice. Result analysis showed that in the most challenging questions (i.e., the ones where students’ answers were diverging) the students in the Confidence, Preparation, and Both groups significantly outperformed the students in the Control group. In addition, both confidence and preparation variables were significantly correlated to students’ performance during the initial phase, suggesting that students were accurate and sincere in describing their preparation and confidence levels. This paper is an extended version of [1], presented at the 9th International Conference on Computer Supported Education.


Feedback Group awareness Formative assessment Quiz Confidence Preparation 



This work has been partially funded by a Starting Grant from AUFF (Aarhus Universitets Forskningsfond), titled “Innovative and Emerging Technologies in Education”.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pantelis M. Papadopoulos
    • 1
  • Antonis Natsis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikolaus Obwegeser
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Teaching Development and Digital MediaAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of ManagementAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark

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