Enactive Systems and Children at Hospitals: For More Socially Aware Solutions with Improved Affectibility

  • Elaine C. S. HayashiEmail author
  • Roberto Pereira
  • José Valderlei da Silva
  • M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 527)


One of the challenges faced by designers when creating technology is to be aware of social responsibilities when proposing a new digital artefact. With the popularization of computational technology among children, the challenge gains new proportions. Varied digital solutions have been presented for children at hospitals to lessen anxiety, stress and loneliness caused by hospitalization. If designers do not consider the broader view of the context, the social consequences of the use of their solutions might worsen users’ initial situation. In order to better understand the context and obtain a more comprehensive view from the state of the art in this subject, we used a Semiotic Framework and the Principles for Affectibility to analyze artefact solutions proposed for hospitalized children. As a result, we identified gaps that represent new opportunities for research. The results are discussed towards more social awareness towards new, contemporary interfaces that defy traditional interaction forms.


Organizational semiotics Enactive systems Children care 



We would like to thank the financial support of CNPq (306272/2017-2); CAPES (1644511); and process grant # 2015/165280 and #2015/24300-9 from São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP).


  1. 1.
    Akabane, S., Leu, J., Araki, R., Chang, E., Nakayama, S., Shibahara, H., Terasaki, M., Furukawa, S., Inakage, M.: ZOOTOPIA: a tangible and accessible zoo for hospitalized children. In: ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA 2010 Posters, p. 31 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akabane, S., Leu, J., Iwadate, H., Choi, J.W., Chang, C.C., Nakayama, S., Terasaki, M., Eldemellawy, H., Inakage, M., Furukawa, S.: Push planet: a tangible interface design for hospitalized children. In: CHI 2011 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1345–1350 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Almeida, L.D.A., Baranauskas, M.C.C.: Um prospecto de sistemas colaborativos: modelos e frameworks. In: Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems (IHC 2008), pp. 204–213 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arpetti, A., Baranauskas, M.C.C.: Enactive systems & computing: mapping the terrain for human-computer interaction research. In: 43º SEMISH – Seminário Integrado de Software e Hardware, CSBC 2016 (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baranauskas, M.C.C.: Social awareness in HCI. Interactions 21(4), 66–69 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baranauskas, M.C.C.: Sistemas Sócio-Enativos: Investigando Novas Dimensões no Design da Interação Mediada por Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação. FAPESP Thematic Project (2015/165280) (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boehner, K., de Paula, R., Dourish, P., Sengers, P.: How emotion is made and measured. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 65(4), 275–291 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blom, S.R., Boere-Boonekamp, M.M., Stegwee, R.A.: Social connectedness through ICT and the influence on wellbeing: the case of the CareRabbit (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hayashi, E.C.S., Baranauskas, M.C.C.: Designing for affectibility: principles and guidelines. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) HCI 2015. CCIS, vol. 528, pp. 25–31. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huerga, R.S., Lade, J., Mueller, F.: Designing play to support hospitalized children. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, pp. 401–412 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jeong, S., Logan, D.E., Goodwin, M.S., Graca, S., O’Connell, B., Goodenough, H., Anderson, L., Stenquist, N., Fitzpatrick, K., Zisook, M., Plummer, L.: A social robot to mitigate stress, anxiety, and pain in hospital pediatric care. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction Extended Abstracts, pp. 103–104 (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaipainen, M., Ravaja, N., Tikka, P., Vuori, R., Pugliese, R., Rapino, M., Takala, T.: Enactive systems and enactive media: embodied human-machine coupling beyond interfaces. Leonardo 44(5), 433–438 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, K.: Semiotics in Information Systems and Engineering. Cambridge University, Cambridge (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maike, V.R.M.L., Buchdid, S.B., Baranauskas, M.C.C.: Designing natural user interfaces scenarios for all and for some: an analysis informed by organizational semiotics artifacts. In: Liu, K., Nakata, K., Li, W., Galarreta, D. (eds.) ICISO 2015. IAICT, vol. 449, pp. 92–101. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Picard, R.: Affective Computing. MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rueb, T., Wardzala, J., Millstone, J.: Billow: networked hospital playspace for children. In: CHI 1997 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 357–358 (1997)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saldien, J., Goris, K., Yilmazyildiz, S., Verhelst, W., Lefeber, D.: On the design of the huggable robot Probo (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stamper, R.: A semiotic theory of information and information systems. In: Invited papers for the ICL/University of Newcastle Seminar on Information (1993)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stiehl, W.D., Lee, J.K., Breazeal, C., Nalin, M., Morandi, A., Sanna, A.: The huggable: a platform for research in robotic companions for pediatric care. In: International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC 2009), pp. 317–320. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Teh, J.K.S, Cheok, A.D., Choi, Y., Fernando, C.L., Peiris, R.L., Fernando, O.N.N.: Huggy pajama: a parent and child hugging communication system. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC 2009). ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thompson, E., Stapleton, M.: Making sense of sense-making: reflections on enactive and extended mind theories. Topoi 28(1), 23–30 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Varela, F.J., Thompson, E., Rosch, E.: The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. MIT Press, Cambridge (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vetere, F., Green, J., Nisselle, A., Dang, X.T., Zazryn, T., Deng, P.P.: Inclusion during school absence: using ambient technology to create a classroom presence for hospitalised children. Telecommun. J. Aust. 62, 5 (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wadley, G., Vetere, F., Hopkins, L., Green, J., Kulik, L.: Exploring ambient technology for connecting hospitalised children with school and home. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud. 72(8), 640–653 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine C. S. Hayashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roberto Pereira
    • 2
  • José Valderlei da Silva
    • 1
  • M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Federal University of Paraná (UFPR)CuritibaBrazil

Personalised recommendations