Seamless Co-reading System for Collaborative Group Learning

  • Chih-Tsan ChangEmail author
  • Cheng-Yu Tsai
  • Yuen-Ju Li
  • Hung-Hsu Tsai
  • Pao-Ta Yu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10949)


To promote the performance of cooperative learning, this study proposes an online multi-user real-time co-reading system. Through this platform, it assists the teacher and students to increase the coordinative degree of learning activities such that the flipped learning can be seamlessly performed inside or outside the classroom. The multi-user real-time co-reading system is based on the skill of WebSocket to let learners simultaneously watch streaming videos on YouTube almost without delay. This can provide the teacher to guide the student watching the learning video and then get back the feedback from whole class or cooperative groups. According to the feedback, the teacher is able to understand immediately the students’ learning condition so that the teacher can adjust the learning material to improve students’ learning effect and interest. When students have a learning problem, they can discuss or share the ideas with other members in the chatroom. In addition, the greatest feature of the system is the grouping mechanism different from Skype and JoinNet. The teacher can rearrange cooperative groups based on students’ learning condition by their learning feedback from system to give an ideal grouping such that most of students can take higher advantage during their flipped learning.


Cooperative learning Flipped learning WebSocket YouTube player API 



This work has been supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under Grants MOST 106-2511-S-194 -001-MY3 and MOST 105-2511-S-194 -002 -MY3.


  1. 1.
    Oztok, M., Zingaro, D., Brett, C., Hewitt, J.: Exploring asynchronous and synchronous tool use in online courses. Comput. Educ. 60(1), 87–94 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Park, Y.J., Bonk, C.J.: Synchronous learning experiences: distance and residential learners’ perspectives in a blended graduate course. J. Interact. Online Learn. 6(3), 245–264 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li, M.P., Lam, B.H.: Cooperative Learning. The Active Classroom. The Hong Kong Institute of Education, p. 10 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    WebSocket Communication Protocol Introduction: Comparison of Polling, Long-Polling and Streaming Principles of Operation.
  5. 5.
    Introduction to Operation of Server-Sent Events.
  6. 6.
    Wang, V., Salim, F., Moskovits, P.: The Definitive Guide to HTML5 WebSocket, vol. 1. Apress, New York (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fette, I.: The WebSocket Protocol (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Official Website of WebSocket.
  9. 9.
    YouTube Player API Reference for IFrame Embeds.
  10. 10.
    Downie, N.: Chart.js (2013).
  11. 11.
    Tsai, C.-Y., Chang, C.-T., Hsu, J.-M., Tsai, H.-H., Dai, Z.-C., Yu, P.-T.: Toward a highly interactive model of flipped learning. In: Cheung, S.K.S., Kwok, L., Yang, H., Fong, J., Kwan, R. (eds.) ICHL 2015. LNCS, vol. 9167, pp. 173–186. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barseghian, T.: Three trends that define the future of teaching and learning. In: KQED, 30 p. (2011). Accessed Apr 2013Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tucker, B.: The flipped classroom. Educ. Next 12(1), 82–83 (2012)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma, K., Sun, R.: Introducing websocket-based real-time monitoring system for remote intelligent buildings. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw. 9(12) (2013). Article ID 867693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brusino, J.: The next generation of SCORM: a Q&A with Aaron Silvers (2012). Accessed 3 Nov 2013Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marshall, C.C.: Reading and Writing the Electronic Book. Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services. Morgan & Claypool Publishers (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adler, A., Gujar, A., Harrison, B. L., O’hara, K., Sellen, A.: A diary study of work-related reading: design implications for digital reading devices. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems, pp. 241–248. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., January 1998Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Slavin, R.E.: Cooperative learning: applying contact theory in desegregated schools. J. Soc. Issues 43–62 (1985)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., Smith, K.A.: Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom, 2nd edn. Interaction Book Company, Edina (1998)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T.: Learning Together and Alone: Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1987)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nattiv, A.: Helping behaviors and math achievement gain of students using cooperative learning. Elem. Sch. J. 94(3), 285–297 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chang, C.T., Tsai, C.Y., Peng, S.E., Tsai, H.H., Yu, P.T.: On the design of multi-user streaming feedback system for application of cooperative learning. In: International Computer Symposium (ICS), pp. 656–659. IEEE, December 2016Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chih-Tsan Chang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cheng-Yu Tsai
    • 3
  • Yuen-Ju Li
    • 1
  • Hung-Hsu Tsai
    • 4
  • Pao-Ta Yu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Chung Cheng UniversityChiayiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Digital DesignMingDao UniversityChanghuaTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Research DevelopmentXengda Technology Co., Ltd.New TaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Information ManagementNational Formosa UniversityHuweiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations