Bubble Issues and Dive Computer Implementations

  • B. R. Wienke
  • T. R. O’Leary
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Computer Science book series (BRIEFSCOMPUTER)


Bubble birth, growth, evolution, destruction and elimination in the body of human divers are central issues in safe diver staging protocols from exposures at depth. Today, despite incredible technological advances in medical and physiological science, we really know very little about bubbles in vivo and their complex behavior under pressure and environmental changes. Measuring bubbles and their properties in vivo by invasive means often destroys or changes what is being measured. Measuring with non-invasive techniques is very limited. Doppler scoring of moving body bubbles is only able to count numbers. Experiments using materials with properties similar to blood and tissue can be useful as a starting point for simulating bubble behavior but of course blood and tissue are metabolic and perfused adding additional complexity and unknowns to coupled modeling and simulation. In this vein, therefore, we investigate bubble data and experiments in the laboratory to make some hypothetical estimates of possible impacts of bubble regeneration and broadening on diver staging regimens. A working framework for implementation of bubble regeneration and broadening is detailed for dive computers and diveware.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. R. Wienke
    • 1
  • T. R. O’Leary
    • 2
  1. 1.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  2. 2.NAUI Technical Diving OperationsRiverviewUSA

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