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Molecular Mechanisms Affecting Cell Wall Properties and Leaf Architecture

  • Sarathi M. Weraduwage
  • Marcelo L. Campos
  • Yuki Yoshida
  • Ian T. Major
  • Yong-Sig Kim
  • Sang-Jin Kim
  • Luciana Renna
  • Fransisca C. Anozie
  • Federica Brandizzi
  • Michael F. Thomashow
  • Gregg A. Howe
  • Thomas D. SharkeyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 44)

Summary

Leaf architecture is determined by cell shape, size, and density. As plant cells are enclosed by a rigid cell wall, changes to leaf architecture have to occur through downstream genetic systems that induce alterations in (1) cell wall composition, (2) synthesis, assembly, and orientation of cytoskeletal elements and/or (3) the degree of cross-linkage between wall components in response to upstream developmental and environmental cues. This chapter reviews how leaf architecture is influenced by molecular mechanisms that modulate the above wall modification processes. Upstream signaling systems such as salicylic (SA), jasmonic (JA), and gibberellic (GA) acid have significant effects on leaf architecture. GA promotes and JA and SA suppress growth. Leaf architectural changes are brought about by these upstream systems in concert or in an interactive manner, and the associated downstream molecular systems that are involved in executing changes to cell wall properties will be discussed. Evidence will be provided to show that xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and pectin methyltransferase/pectin methylesterase/pectin methylesterase inhibitor systems are key downstream execution points of leaf architectural changes common to different upstream molecular systems. Optimization of leaf architecture maximizes light interception, gas exchange properties, and photosynthesis. In addition, plant growth has been shown to be more sensitive to leaf area than to area-based photosynthesis rate. Therefore, understanding genes and molecular mechanisms that affect cell wall properties and leaf architecture has broader implications in terms of crop improvement, and candidate genes that can be manipulated to optimize leaf architecture in order to maximize net carbon assimilation and plant growth will be proposed.

Abbreviations

ABA

abscisic acid

ABP1

PUTATIVE AUXIN RECEPTOR AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN

AIR

alcohol insoluble residue

AN

ANGUSTIFOLIA

ARP2/3

ACTIN RELATED PROTEIN

BR

brassinosteroids

BRICK1

SCAR/WAVE ACTIN-NUCLEATING COMPLEX SUBUNIT

C

carbon

CAMTA

CALMODULIN BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR

CBF

CRT/DRE BINDING FACTOR

CBP60G

CALMODULIN BINDING PROTEIN 60G

CESA

CELLULOSE SYNTHASE

CGR

COTTON GOLGI-RELATED

cgr2com

cgr2/3 complemented by CGR2

CGR2OX

CGR2 overexpression line of Arabidopsis thaliana

CO2

carbon dioxide

CRT

C-repeat

CSL

CELLULOSE SYNTHASE LIKE

CYP85A1

BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE

CYP90C1

CYTOCHROME P-450 FAMILY STEROID HYDROLASE

DELLA

PIF transcription factor repressors

DRE

dehydration responsive element

ER

ERECTA

F-actin

actin microfilaments

FR

far-red

GA

gibberellic acid

GT8

GLYCOSYL TRANSFERASE8

IAA

auxin

ICS1

ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE

IIIe bHLHs

basic helix-loop-helix subgroup IIIe transcription factors

JA

jasmonic acid

JAZ

jasmonate ZIM-domain repressors

jazQ

JAZ quintuple mutation

LMA

leaf dry mass per unit leaf area

LMD

leaf mass density

LNG

LONGIFOLIA

MAP18

MICROTUBULE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18

MDP40

MICROTUBULE DESTABILIZING PROTEIN40

MF

fine actin filament

MOR1

MICROTUBULE ORGANIZATION PROTEIN

MT

microtubule

MYC2

a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor

NAP1

NCK-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN

nt

nucleotide

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

Pfr

active form of phytochrome that absorbs far-red light

PHYB

PHYTOCHROME-B

PIF

phytochrome-interacting factors

PIN

PIN-FORMED AUXIN EFFLUX CARRIER GENE FAMILY PROTEIN

PME

PECTIN METHYLESTERASE

PMEI

PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR

PMT

pectin methyltransferase

Pr

inactive form of phytochrome that absorbs red light

PVX

potato virus X vector

QUA

QUASIMODO

R

red

RhoGAP

negative regulator of ROP

RhoGEF

Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factors

RIC

ROP-INTERACTIVE CRIB MOTIF PROTEIN

RNA-seq

RNA sequencing

ROP

RHO-RELATED GTPASE FROM PLANT (RhoGTPase)

ROT3

ROTUNDIFOLIA3

rubisco

ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase

SA

salicylic acid

SARD1

SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE DEFICIENT 1

SBP-BOX

SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN–LIKE GENE

Sc

chloroplast surface area facing intercellular air spaces per unit leaf area

SCAR

SUPPRESSOR OF CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR

sid2-1

salicylic acid induction-deficient 2-1

siRNA

small interfering RNA

Smes

mesophyll cell surface area facing intercellular air spaces per unit leaf area

SPIKE

RHOGEF OR DOCK180-TYPE GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR

SRA1

RAC1-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN-1

TMK

TRANSMEMBRANE KINASE SUBFAMILY OF RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES

TSD2

TUMOROUS SHOOT DEVELOPMENT2

VIGS

virus-induced gene silencing

VPDB

Vienna-Pee-Dee Belemnite standard

WAVE

WISKOTT–ALDRICH SYNDROME PROTEIN-FAMILY VERPROLIN HOMOLOGOUS PROTEIN

XEH

XYLOGLUCAN ENDOHYDROLASE

XET

XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE

XTH

XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE

XXT

XYLOSYLTRANSFERASE

δ13CVPDB

ratio of 13C to 12C isotopes in leaf tissue relative to a Vienna-Pee-Dee Belemnite standard

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Drs. Sean E. Weise, (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Cliff Foster (the Cell Wall Facility, Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center), Alicia Withrow and Melinda Frame (Center for Advanced Microscopy) of Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI), and to Dr. Suvankar Chakraborty (Stable Isotope Ratio Facility for Environmental Research) of the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, UT) for their support. We also wish to thank Jim Klug and Cody Keilen (Growth Chamber Facility) of Michigan State University for their assistance and all members of the Brandizzi, Thomashow, Howe, and Sharkey labs for their support. Funding for this research was provided by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy (award number DE-FG02-91ER20021) and in part by the DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (DOE Office of Science BER DE-FC02-07ER64494). Partial salary support for MT, GH, TDS, and FB came from Michigan AgBioResearch.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarathi M. Weraduwage
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marcelo L. Campos
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yuki Yoshida
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ian T. Major
    • 1
  • Yong-Sig Kim
    • 1
  • Sang-Jin Kim
    • 1
    • 5
  • Luciana Renna
    • 1
    • 5
  • Fransisca C. Anozie
    • 6
  • Federica Brandizzi
    • 1
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  • Michael F. Thomashow
    • 1
    • 8
    • 9
    • 2
  • Gregg A. Howe
    • 1
    • 6
    • 2
  • Thomas D. Sharkey
    • 1
    • 5
    • 6
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.MSU-DOE Plant Research LaboratoryMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Plant Resilience InstituteMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  3. 3.Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  4. 4.Graduate School of ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research CenterMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  6. 6.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  7. 7.Department of Plant BiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  8. 8.Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial SciencesMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  9. 9.Department of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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