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Photosynthetic and Photosynthesis-Related Responses of Japanese Native Trees to CO2: Results from Phytotrons, Open-Top Chambers, Natural CO2 Springs, and Free-Air CO2 Enrichment

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The Leaf: A Platform for Performing Photosynthesis

Summary

We explore the effects of elevated CO2, in relation to other environmental factors, on leaf photosynthesis, the functioning of other organs, and the plant as a unit, primarily in tree species and herbs common to cool temperate forests in northeast Asia. First, results of a series of chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange studies using white birch as a model tree species are discussed. Excess energy appears to be suppressed by enhancing photosynthetic capacity or thermal dissipation, depending on the availability of nitrogen in both current and elevated CO2 levels. Next, evidence suggests adaptation of wild plants to CO2 near springs. If some adaptation occurs, plants will not necessarily respond like current plants to future environmental change. Finally, physiological ecology of woody plants grown in open top chambers and Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) is summarized in relation to the changing environment. This summary emphasizes that effects of future environments on plants should be examined by paying attention not only to CO2 but also to various environmental components, such as soil types, nutrient availability, herbivores, mycorrhizae, ground level O3, and methane emission.

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Abbreviations

BF:

brown forest soil

Ci :

intercellular concentration of CO2

D:

thermal energy dissipation

E:

excess energy

ECM:

ectomycorrhizal

ETR:

electron transport rate

FACE:

free-air CO2 enrichment

Fm (Fm′):

maximum fluorescence level (in actinic light)

FM:

larch-forest soil with multiple species of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Fo (Fo’):

minimum fluorescence level (in actinic light)

Fv (Fv’):

variable fluorescence (in the light)

LAI:

leaf area index

LCP:

light compensation point for photosynthesis

LMA:

leaf dry mass per unit leaf area

ML50:

larval survival rate and longevity

N:

nitrogen

OTC:

open top chamber

P:

phosphorus

PFD:

photon flux density

Pgrowth :

photosynthetic rate determined at the CO2 concentration experienced during growth

PNUE:

photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency

qP:

photochemical quenching

S:R:

ratio of shoots to roots (biomass basis)

SM:

soil with Suillus grevillei inoculum

VA:

immature volcanic ash soil

Vc,max:

maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation

+W:

well irrigated conditions

−W:

drought conditions

WUE:

water use efficiency

Φ 680 :

slope of the photosynthetic light response curve in the light-limiting region determined with monochromatic light of 680 nm = apparent quantum yield

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank Prof. I. Terashima of The University of Tokyo for comments on a draft and Mr. T. Squires (Oregon State University, USA) for proofreading a draft. Dr. E. Agathokleous is an International Research Fellow (ID No: P17102) of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). Studies in the area of plant response to CO2 have been funded by several grants from JSPS (Innovative Areas-21114008, Type A-17208013, Type B-11460061, 11460076, challenging Exploratory Research-16658060,18658060) over several decades.

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Koike, T. et al. (2018). Photosynthetic and Photosynthesis-Related Responses of Japanese Native Trees to CO2: Results from Phytotrons, Open-Top Chambers, Natural CO2 Springs, and Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. In: Adams III, W., Terashima, I. (eds) The Leaf: A Platform for Performing Photosynthesis. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol 44. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93594-2_15

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