Climate-Smart Groundnuts for Achieving High Productivity and Improved Quality: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities

  • Sunil S. Gangurde
  • Rakesh Kumar
  • Arun K. Pandey
  • Mark Burow
  • Haydee E. Laza
  • Spurthi N. Nayak
  • Baozhu Guo
  • Boshou Liao
  • Ramesh S. Bhat
  • Naga Madhuri
  • S. Hemalatha
  • Hari K. Sudini
  • Pasupuleti Janila
  • Putta Latha
  • Hasan Khan
  • Babu N. Motagi
  • T. Radhakrishnan
  • Naveen Puppala
  • Rajeev K. VarshneyEmail author
  • Manish K. PandeyEmail author


About 90% of total groundnut is cultivated in the semi-arid tropic (SAT) regions of the world as a major oilseed and food crop and provides essential nutrients required by human diet. Climate change is the main threat to yield and quality of the produce in the SAT regions, and effects are already being seen in some temperate areas also. Rising CO2 levels, erratic rainfall, humidity, short episodes of high temperature and salinity hamper the physiology, disease resistance, fertility and yield as well as seed nutrient levels of groundnut. To meet growing demands of the increasing population against the threats of climate change, it is necessary to develop climate-smart varieties with enhanced and stable genetic improvements. Identifying key traits affected by climate change in groundnut will be important for developing an appropriate strategy for developing new varieties. Fast-changing scenarios of product ecologies as a consequence of climate change need faster development and replacement of improved varieties in the farmers’ fields to sustain yield and quality. Use of modern genomics technology is likely to help in improved understanding and efficient breeding for climate-smart traits such as tolerance to drought and heat, and biotic stresses such as foliar diseases, stem rot, peanut bud necrosis disease, and preharvest aflatoxin contamination. The novel promising technologies such as genomic selection and genome editing need to be tested for their potential utility in developing climate-smart groundnut varieties. System modeling may further improve the understanding and characterization of the problems of target ecologies for devising strategies to overcome the problem. The combination of conventional breeding techniques with genomics and system modeling approaches will lead to a new era of system biology assisted breeding for sustainable agricultural production to feed the ever-growing population.


Climate-smart crop Groundnut Biotic and abiotic stress Genomics-assisted breeding Genetic and association mapping Wild relatives 



The authors are thankful to Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)- National Agricultural Science Funds (NASF), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) and INSPIRE of Department of Science and Technology (DST), India; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Tropical Legumes III) and MARS WRIGLEY, USA and World Bank assisted Karnataka Watershed Development Project-II (KWDP-II) funded by Government of Karnataka (GoK), India, and USDA-NIFA (Hatch) funding for financial assistance. The work reported in this article was undertaken as a part of the CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes and Dryland Cereals (GLDC). ICRISAT is a member of the CGIAR.

Competing financial interests

The author(s) declare no competing financial interests.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil S. Gangurde
    • 1
  • Rakesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Arun K. Pandey
    • 1
  • Mark Burow
    • 2
    • 3
  • Haydee E. Laza
    • 3
    • 4
  • Spurthi N. Nayak
    • 5
  • Baozhu Guo
    • 6
  • Boshou Liao
    • 7
  • Ramesh S. Bhat
    • 5
  • Naga Madhuri
    • 8
  • S. Hemalatha
    • 9
  • Hari K. Sudini
    • 1
  • Pasupuleti Janila
    • 1
  • Putta Latha
    • 8
  • Hasan Khan
    • 10
  • Babu N. Motagi
    • 5
  • T. Radhakrishnan
    • 11
  • Naveen Puppala
    • 12
  • Rajeev K. Varshney
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manish K. Pandey
    • 1
    • 9
    Email author
  1. 1.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)HyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Texas A & M AgriLife ResearchLubbockUSA
  3. 3.Department of Plant and Soil ScienceTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  4. 4.USDA-ARS-CSRLLubbockUSA
  5. 5.University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS)DharwadIndia
  6. 6.Crop Protection and Management Research UnitUSDA-ARSTiftonUSA
  7. 7.Oil Crops Research Institute (OCRI) of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)WuhanChina
  8. 8.Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS)Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU)TirupatiIndia
  9. 9.BS Abdur Rahman UniversityChennaiIndia
  10. 10.University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS)RaichurIndia
  11. 11.ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research (ICAR-DGR)JunagadhIndia
  12. 12.New Mexico State University-Agricultural Science Center at ClovisNew MexicoUSA

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