Skip to main content

Epidemiology of Hepatitis B

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Viral Hepatitis: Chronic Hepatitis B

Abstract

In this chapter the global distribution and contemporary trends of the prevalence of hepatitis B in the different regions of the world were described. Analysis of the relationship between HBV prevalence and income, also vaccination campaign of infants and children under 5 years old, is presented. Specific attention was paid on the distribution of hepatitis B among risk groups (intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, indigenous peoples and minorities, prisoners, migrants, blood donors, health-care workers, coinfection with HIV infection and hepatitis C). Gaps and problems in the study of hepatitis B epidemiology and prophylaxis and future trends and prognosis of the spread of HBV in the world are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 39.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Resolution WHA58.13. Blood safety: proposal to establish World Blood Donor Day. In: Fifty-eighth World Health Assembly, Geneva, 16–25 May 2005. Resolutions and decisions, annexes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. http://www.who.int/bloodsafety/WHA58_13-en.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Hutin Y, Chen RT. Injection safety: a global challenge. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(10):787–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report 2017. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. Lancet. 2015;386(10003):1546–55.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The ABCs of Hepatitis. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Resources/Professionals/PDFs/ABCTable_BW.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.

  6. Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat. 2004;11(2):97–107.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet. 2015;386(9995):743–800.; published online June 7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Franco E, Bagnato B, Marino MG, Meleleo C, Serino L, Zaratti L. Hepatitis B: epidemiology and prevention in developing countries. World J Hepatol. 2012;4(3):74.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Hope VD, Eramova I, Capurro D, Donoghoe MC. Prevalence and estimation of hepatitis B and C infections in the WHO European region: a review of data focusing on the countries outside the European Union and the European free trade association. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142(2):270–86.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Liang X, Bi S, Yang W, Wang L, Cui G, Cui F, Wang F. Epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China—declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27(47):6550–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Musa BM, Bussell S, Borodo MM, Samaila AA, Femi OL. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria, 2000-2013: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015;18(2):163–72.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Beasley RP, Trepo C, Stevens CE, Szmuness W. The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J Epidemiol. 1977;105(2):94–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. World Health Organization. World health statistics 2016: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/206498/1/9789241565264_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Nelson PK, Mathers BM, Cowie B, Hagan H, Des Jarlais D, Horyniak D, Degenhardt L. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: results of systematic reviews. Lancet. 2011;378(9791):571–83.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Van Houdt R, van den Berg CH, Stolte IG, Bruisten SM, Dukers NH, Bakker M, et al. Two decades of hepatitis B infections among drug users in Amsterdam: are they still a high-risk group? J Med Virol. 2009;81(7):1163–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Urbanus AT, van Houdt R, van de Laar TJ, Coutinho RA. Viral hepatitis among men who have sex with men, epidemiology and public health consequences. Euro Surveill. 2009;14(47):19421.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Lavanchy D. Worldwide epidemiology of HBV infection, disease burden, and vaccine prevention. J Clin Virol. 2005;34(Suppl 1):S1–3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Sloan RD, Strang AL, Ramsay ME, Teo CG. Genotyping of acute HBV isolates from England, 1997-2001. J Clin Virol. 2009;44(2):157–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Van Houdt R, Bruisten SM, Geskus RB, Bakker M, Wolthers KC, Prins M, Coutinho RA. Ongoing transmission of a single hepatitis B virus strain among men having sex with men in Amsterdam. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17(2):108–14.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Koibuchi T, Hitani A, Nakamura T, Nojiri N, Nakajima K, Jyuji T, Iwamoto A. Predominance of genotype A HBV in an HBV-HIV-1 dually positive population compared with an HIV-1-negative counterpart in Japan. J Med Virol. 2001;64(4):435–40.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Sherman M. Strategies for managing coinfection with hepatitis B virus and HIV. Cleve Clin J Med. 2009;76(Suppl 3):S30–3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Veselíny E, Janicko M, Drazilová S, et al. High hepatitis B and low hepatitis C prevalence in Roma population in eastern Slovakia. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2014;22(Suppl):S51–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Michos A, Terzidis A, Kalampoki V, Pantelakis K, Spanos T, Petridou ET. Seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis A, B, and C among Roma and non-Roma children in a deprived area of Athens, Greece. J Med Virol. 2008;80:791–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Pan American Health Organization. Hepatitis B and C in the spotlight. A public health response in the Americas, 2016. Washington: Pan American Health Organization; 2016. updated Jan 2017. http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/handle/123456789/31449. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Murhekar MV, Murhekar KM, Sehgal SC. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection among the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:729–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Graham S, Guy RJ, Cowie B, Wand HC, Donovan B, Akre SP, et al. Chronic hepatitis B prevalence among aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians since universal vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:403.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. McMahon BJ. Viral hepatitis in the Arctic. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl 2):41–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Ott J, Stevens G, Groeger J, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: new estimates of age-specific HBsAg seroprevalence and endemicity. Vaccine. 2012;30(12):2212–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Systematic review on hepatitis B and C prevalence in the EU/EEA. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016. http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/systematic-review-hepatitis-B-C-prevalence.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Dolan K, Wirtz AL, Moazen B, Ndeffo-mbah M, Galvani A, Kinner SA, Hellard M. Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees. Lancet. 2016;388(10049):1089–102.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Allwright S, Bradley F, Long J, Barry J, Thornton L, Parry JV. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in Irish prisoners: results of a national cross sectional survey. BMJ. 2016;321(7253):78–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Decker MD, Vaughn WK, Brodie JS, Hutcheson RH Jr, Schaffner W. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B in Tennessee prisoners. J Infect Dis. 1984;150(3):450–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Kazi AM, Shah SA, Jenkins CA, Shepherd BE, Vermund SH. Risk factors and prevalence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among prisoners in Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e60–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Nokhodian Z, Yazdani MR, Yaran M, Shoaei P, Mirian M, Ataei B, Ataie M. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C among female prisoners in Isfahan, Iran. Hepat Mon. 2016;12(7):442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Dana D, Zary N, Peyman A, Behrooz A. Risk prison and hepatitis B virus infection among inmates with history of drug injection in Isfahan, Iran. Sci World J. 2013;2013:735761.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Reekie JM, Levy MH, Richards AH, et al. Trends in HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C prevalence among Australian prisoners—2004, 2007, 2010. Med J Aust. 2014;200:277–80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Rossi C, Shrier I, Marshall L, Cnossen S, Schwartzman K, Klein MB, Greenaway C. Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and prior immunity in immigrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44611.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. World Health Organization. Global status report on blood safety and availability 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/254987/1/9789241565431-eng.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  39. WHO, CDC, IFRC. Blood donor counselling: implementation guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. http://www.who.int/bloodsafety/voluntary_donation/Blooddonorcounselling.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Dec 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Prüss-Ustün A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. Estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to contaminated sharps injuries among health-care workers. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48(6):482–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Coppola N, De Pascalis S, Onorato L, Calò F, Sagnelli C, Sagnelli E. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection in healthcare workers. World J Hepatol. 2016;8:273–81.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Gerberding JL. Incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and cytomegalovirus among health care personnel at risk for blood exposure: final report from a longitudinal study. J Infect Dis. 1994;170(6):1410–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Squadrito G, Orlando ME, Pollicino T, et al. Virological profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C and overt or occult HBV infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1518–23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Gaeta GB, Stornaiuolo G, Precone DF, Lobello S, Chiaramonte M, Stroffolini T, Rizzetto M. Epidemiological and clinical burden of chronic hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infection. A multicenter Italian study. J Hepatol. 2003;39:1036–41.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Chu CJ, Lee SD. Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: epidemiology, clinical features, viral interactions and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23(4):512–20.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Pshenichnaya, N., Chulanov, V., Leblebicioglu, H. (2018). Epidemiology of Hepatitis B. In: Ozaras, R., Tahan, V. (eds) Viral Hepatitis: Chronic Hepatitis B. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93449-5_3

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93449-5_3

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-93448-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-93449-5

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics