Introduction: Cervical Approaches, Access Ranges and Indications



Approaches to the cervical spine can first be conveniently divided and considered with regard to the three readily distinguishable cervical levels: the craniocervical spine, the subaxial spine and the cervicothoracic junction (Fig. 1.1). At each of these three cervical levels, the most appropriate approach corridor, access and indications can then be further considered as regards the 360° of approach which are encompassed within the anterior, posterior, lateral, anterolateral and posterolateral approaches as conventionally described (Fig. 1.2).

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Birmingham Spinal ClinicBirminghamUK

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