Standard Transoral Approach to the Craniocervical Junction and Upper Cervical Spine
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The transoral approaches for decompression of irreducible ventral pathology at the craniovertebral junction have become a mainstay of treatment. In the last 10 years, the emergence of endoscopic endonasal approaches has provided more options for decompression of irreducible ventral craniovertebral junction pathology. This includes congenital and developmental basilar invagination, basilar impression, cranial settling, proatlas segmentation abnormalities, os odontoideum, tumors, and other rare congenital bony abnormalities.