Conclusions: What Has the EU Achieved, and What Is in the Offing?

  • Jakub M. GodzimirskiEmail author
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


This chapter sums up the main findings and looks into challenges the EU will face in the future. This volume examines and addresses several questions dealing with the EU ability to project various types of soft and hard power in EU’s interaction with external energy suppliers and member states and their responses. The second part focuses on the future challenges in the field of energy and is based on examination of some scenarios for development of the global energy system, the EU’s own understanding of future challenges in the field of energy and finally on examination of the WEF assessment of risks and trends that may influence future developments.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI)OsloNorway

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