Advertisement

Conclusions: What Has the EU Achieved, and What Is in the Offing?

  • Jakub M. GodzimirskiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

This chapter sums up the main findings and looks into challenges the EU will face in the future. This volume examines and addresses several questions dealing with the EU ability to project various types of soft and hard power in EU’s interaction with external energy suppliers and member states and their responses. The second part focuses on the future challenges in the field of energy and is based on examination of some scenarios for development of the global energy system, the EU’s own understanding of future challenges in the field of energy and finally on examination of the WEF assessment of risks and trends that may influence future developments.

References

  1. Cornot-Gandolphe, S. (2018). Le gaz dans la transition énergétique européenne: enjeux et opportunités. Études de l’Ifri. Paris: IFRI. https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/cornot-gandolphe_gaz_transition_energetique_2018.pdf. Retrieved 30 Jan 2018.
  2. European Commission. (2016). EU reference scenario 2016. Energy, transport and GHG emissions. Trends to 2050. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/ref2016_report_final-web.pdf
  3. Gaub, F., & Popescu, N. (2015). The EU neighbours 1995–2015: Shades of grey. Chaillot Papers: 136. Paris. https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/Chaillot_Paper_136.pdf. Retrieved 15 Dec 2017.
  4. Haukkala, H., & Popescu, N. (Eds.). (2016). Russian futures. Horizon 2025 (Vol. 26). Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  5. Kenderdine, M. A., & Moniz, E. J. (2013). Technology development and energy security. In J. H. Kalicki & D. L. Goldwyn (Eds.), Energy and security: Strategies for a world in transition (pp. 378–421). Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press/Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Novati, G. P. C., & Montanini, M. (2016). Energy and the regional players: The odd rivalry between the EU and China in Africa. In J. M. Godzimirski (Ed.), EU leadership in energy and environmental governance? Global and local challenges and responses (pp. 135–155). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. O’Hara, S., & Lai, H. (2011). China’s “Dash for Gas”: Challenges and potential impacts on global markets. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 52(4), 501–522.  https://doi.org/10.2747/1539-7216.52.4.501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. O’Sullivan, M. L. (2017). Windfall: How the new energy abundance upends global politics and strengthens America’s power. New York/London/Toronto/Sydney/New Delhi: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  9. Odgaard, O., & Delman, J. (2014). China’s energy security and its challenges towards 2035. Energy Policy, 71(0), 107–117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.03.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sharples, J. D. (2016). The shifting geopolitics of Russia’s natural gas exports and their impact on EU-Russia gas relations. Geopolitics, 21(4), 880–912.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2016.1148690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Smil, V. (2017a). Energy and civilization: A history. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Smil, V. (2017b). Energy transitions: Global and national perspectives. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  13. Westphal, K., Bros, A., & Mitrova, T. (2017). German–Russian gas relations. A special relationship in troubled waters. SWP Research Paper: 2017/RP 13. https://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/research_papers/2017RP13_wep_EtAl.pdf. Retrieved 20 Jan 2018.
  14. World Economic Forum. (2017). The global risks report 2017 (12th edn.). Geneva: World Economic Forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GRR17_Report_web.pdf. Retrieved 15 Dec 2017.
  15. World Economic Forum. (2018). The global risks report 2018 (13th edn.). Geneva: World Economic Forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GRR18_Report.pdf. Retrieved 29 Jan 2018.
  16. Yergin, D. (2013). Power in 2030. The roads we may take. IHT Magazine, 27 November. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/28/opinion/power-in-2030-the-roads-we-may-take.html?_r=0. Retrieved 15 Dec 2017.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI)OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations