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Rare Earth Luminescence: Electronic Spectroscopy and Applications

  • Latif Ullah KhanEmail author
  • Zahid U. Khan
Chapter

Abstract

The luminescence exhibited by matter has raised the human curiosity for centuries. The rapid emergent of the solid-state white light-emitting diodes based on the luminescent rare earth ions, especially Ce3+ that emits a complementary color (yellow) of blue light and has central contribution to the development of white LEDs, might be considered the latest lighting devices to light the whole twenty-first century. Thus, the luminescent RE3+ compounds have been significantly studied due to their remarkable photonic applications, presently extended from lighting and displays, laser physics to material science, and agriculture and medical diagnostics (especially bioimaging of tissues and cells). Excess works in the form of peer-reviewed articles, chapters, and books have been published on rare earth luminescence and applications. Most of the books contain larger theoretical studies on the photoluminescence spectroscopy of the rare earth ions, which are not easily understandable by the nonspecialized readers and fresh researchers.

The aim of this chapter is to present concise overview on the key concept of luminescence and electronic spectroscopy of rare earth compounds: energy transfer processes, luminescence spectra and their measurements, instrumental techniques, as well as applications (bioimaging and LEDs). In accordance with the title of the book, the content of the chapter is presented in an efficient and simple way to be better understandable by the nonspecialized readers and fresh researchers.

Abbreviations

A

Acceptor

AD

Anno Domini

CAs

Contrast agents

CCD

Charge-coupled device

CET

Cooperative energy transfer

CFL

Compact fluorescent light

CIE

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage

CRI

Color-rendering index

CT

Computed tomography

D

Donor

DCL

Down-conversion luminescence

ED

Electric dipole

EMU

Energy migration-mediated upconversion

ESA

Excited-state absorption

ET

Energy transfer

ETU

Energy transfer upconversion

FDG

18-Fluorodeoxyglucose

GaInN

Gallium indium nitride

GaN

Gallium nitride

LEDs

Light-emitting diodes

LMCT

Ligand-to-metal charge transfer

LPS lamps

Low-pressure sodium lamps

MCPs

Micro-channel plates

MD

Magnetic dipole

MH lamp

Metal halide lamp

MNPs

Magnetic nanoparticles

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

ms

Millisecond

NIR

Near-infrared

NPs

Nanoparticles

OPN

Osteopontin

PA

Photon avalanche

PAI

Photoacoustic imaging

PAM

Photoacoustic microscopy

PET

Positron emission tomography

PMT

Photomultiplier tubes

QDs

Quantum dots

RE

Rare earth

RGB

Red-green-blue

S

Singlet state

SPECT

Single-photon emission computed tomography

T

Triplet state

THP-1

Tamm-Horsfall protein-1

TTA

Thenoyltrifluoroacetonate

UC

Upconversion

UCL

Upconversion luminescence

UCNPs

Upconversion nanoparticles

UV

Ultraviolet

YAG:Ce3+

Y3Al5O12:Ce3+

α-CD

α-Cyclodextrin

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil) and to The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) for the advancement of science in developing countries and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, Brazil).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano)Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM)CampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical sciences-IV (ICB-IV)University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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