Introduction: What Is CLIC?



Based on a critique of two distinct perspectives on the nature of lexical meaning, Wang justifies the need for re-conceptualizing current views by proposing the concept of CLIC. Then, to justify the need for fostering CLIC through pedagogical intervention, she comprehensively reviews current vocabulary teaching/learning approaches, together with controversies over the two major approaches. After that, she justifies the need for the cultivation of CLIC through pedagogical intervention by revealing the inadequacies of commonly held linguistic assumptions concerning contextual lexical meaning in current vocabulary teaching/learning research. This is followed by the presentation of the general scope of the book.


Lexical Meaning Involvement Load Lexical Competence Rete Retention Lexical Pragmatics 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Asher, N. (2011). Lexical meaning in context: A web of words. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, J. L. (1975). How to do things with words (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A. D. (1990). Human memory: Theory and practice. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. Baghramian, M. (1998). Modern philosophy of language. Berkeley: Counterpoint Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beheydt, L. (1987a). Vocabulary in foreign language teaching methodology. Dutch Crossing, 32, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bensoussan, M., & Laufer, B. (1984). Lexical guessing in context in EFL reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 7, 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blutner, R. (1998). Lexical pragmatics. Journal of Semantics, 15(2), 115–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blutner, R. (2011). Some perspectives on lexical pragmatics. In The pragmatics reader. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Brezina, V., & Gablasova, D. (2015). Is there a core general vocabulary? Introducing the New General Service List. Applied Linguistics, 36(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buikema, J. L., & Graves, M. F. (1993). Teaching students to use context cues to infer word meanings. Journal of Reading, 36, 450–457.Google Scholar
  11. Calderón, M., & Soto, I. (2017). Academic language mastery. Vocabulary in Context. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.Google Scholar
  12. Carston, R. (2002). Metaphor, ad hoc concepts and word meaning – More questions than answers. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics, 14, 83–105.Google Scholar
  13. Cook, V. J., & Wei, L. (2016). The Cambridge handbook of linguistic multi-competence. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Craik, F., & Lockhart, R. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eckerth, J., & Tavakoli, P. (2012). The effects of word exposure frequency and elaboration of word processing on incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition through reading. Language Learning Research., 16(3), 227–252.Google Scholar
  16. Elman, J. L. (2007). On words and dinosaur bones. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th annual conference cognitive science society (p. 4). Austin: Cognitive Science Society.Google Scholar
  17. Engelbart, S. M., & Theuerkauf, B. (1999). Defining context within vocabulary acquisition. Language Teaching Research, 3(1), 57–69.Google Scholar
  18. Fukkink, R. G. (2002). Effects of instruction on deriving word meaning from context and incidental word learning. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 2(1), 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fukkink, R. G., & De Glopper, K. (1998). Effects of instruction in deriving word meaning from context: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 68(4), 450–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Colel & J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics 3: Speech acts (pp. 41–58). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Griffin, G. F. (1992). Aspects of the psychology of second language vocabulary list learning. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Warwick.Google Scholar
  22. Haastrup, K. (2008). Lexical inferencing procedures in two languages. In D. Albrechtsen, K. Haastrup, & B. Henriksen (Eds.), Vocabulary and writing in a first and second language—Processes and development (pp. 67–111). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  23. Hazenberg, S., & Hulstijn, J. H. (1996). Defining a minimal receptive second-language vocabulary for non-native university students: An empirical investigation. Applied Linguistics, 17, 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Horst, M., Cobb, T., & Nicolae, I. (2005). Expanding academic vocabulary with a collaborative on-line database. Language Learning and Technology, 9, 90–110.Google Scholar
  25. Huckin, T. H., & Coady, J. (1999). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(2), 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jenkins, J. R., Matlock, B., & Slocum, T. A. (1989). Two approaches to vocabulary instruction: The teaching of individual word meanings and practice in deriving word meaning from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 24(2), 215–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, M. (2004). A philosophy of second language acquisition. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, A. (2014). A comparison of lexical inferencing skills in third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students. Theses, dissertations, professional papers. Paper 4271.
  29. Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (1998). Teaching children to learn word meanings from context: A synthesis and some questions. Journal of Literacy Research, 30(1), 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Laufer, B. (2005). Focus on form in second language vocabulary acquisition. In S. H. Foster-Cohen, M. P. Garcia Mayo, & J. Cenoz (Eds.), EUROSLA yearbook 5 (pp. 223–250). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  31. Laufer, B. (2006). Comparing focus on form and focus on Forms in second language vocabulary learning. Canadian Modern Language Review, 63, 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Laufer, B. (2011). The contribution of dictionary use to the production and retention of collocations in a second language. International Journal of Lexicography, 24(1), 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Laufer, B. (2013). Lexical thresholds for reading comprehension: What they are and how they can be used for teaching purposes. TESOL Quarterly, 47, 867–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Laufer, B., & Roitblat-Rozovski, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type, word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lockhart, R. S., & Craik, F. I. M. (1990). Levels of processing: A retrospective commentary on a framework for memory research. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 44(1), 87–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miller, G. A. (1996). The science of words. New York: Scientific American Library.Google Scholar
  38. Mitchell, R., & Myles, F. (1998). Second language learning theories. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  39. Mondria, J. (2003). The effects of inferring, verifying, and memorizing on the retention of L2 word meanings: An experimental comparison of the “meaning-inferred method” and the “meaning-given method”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25(4), 473–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nagy, W. E., & Anderson, R. C. (1984). How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nagy, W. E., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In M. G. McKeown & M. E. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp. 19–35). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Nagy, W. E., Herman, P. A., & Anderson, R. C. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20(2), 233–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nagy, W. E., Anderson, R. C., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Learning word meanings from context during normal reading. American Educational Research Journal, 24(2), 237–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nassaji, H. (2003a). Higher-level and lower-level text processing skills in advanced ESL reading comprehension. Modern Language Journal, 87, 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nassaji, H. (2003b). L2 vocabulary learning from context: Strategies, knowledge sources, and their relationship with success in L2 lexical inferencing. TESOL Quarterly, 37, 645–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nation, I. S. P. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review/La revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 63(1), 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nation, I. S. P. (2011). Vocabulary research into practice. Language Teaching, 44(4), 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nation, I. S. P. (2015). Principles guiding vocabulary learning through extensive reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 27(1), 136–145.Google Scholar
  50. Nation, I. S. P., & Coady, J. (1988). Vocabulary and reading. Vocabulary and Language Teaching, 97, 110.Google Scholar
  51. Nation, I. S. P., & Webb, S. (2011). Researching and analyzing vocabulary. Boston: Heinle.Google Scholar
  52. Nemko, B. (1984). Context versus isolation: Another look at beginning readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 4, 461–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (2007). Lexical inferencing in L1 and L2: Implications for vocabulary instruction and learning at advanced levels. In H. Byrnes et al. (Eds.), Educating for advanced foreign language capacities: Constructs, curriculum, instruction, assessment. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Pellicer-Sánchez, A., & Schmitt, N. (2010). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from an authentic novel: Do things fall apart. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(1), 31–55.Google Scholar
  55. Pressley, M., Levin, J. R., & McDaniel, M. A. (1987). Remembering versus inferring what a word means: Mnemonic and contextual approaches. Educational Psychologist, 19, 94–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Prince, P. (1996). Second language vocabulary learning: The role of context versus translations as a function of proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 80(4), 478–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Putnam, H. (1975). Mind, language and reality: philosophical papers (Vol. 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Qian, D. (2005). Demystifying lexical inferencing: The role of aspects of vocabulary knowledge. TESL Canada Journal, 22(2), 34–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Qian, D., & Schedl, M. (2004). Evaluation of an in-depth vocabulary knowledge measure for assessing reading performance. Language Testing, 21(1), 28–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ran, Y. (2008). On the looseness of lexical meaning and its pragmatic enrichment. Foreign Language Research, 1, 1–9.Google Scholar
  61. Rapaport, W. J., & Kibby, M. W. (2005). In defense of contextual vocabulary acquisition. In Modeling and using context (pp. 396–409). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rapaport, W. J., & Kibby, M. W. (2009). Contextual vocabulary acquisition: From algorithm to curriculum. Paper presented at the international conference on integration of knowledge intensive multi-agent systems, 2003.Google Scholar
  63. Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Weber, H. (1985). Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  64. Schmitt, N. (2002). Vocabulary in language teaching. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen.Google Scholar
  65. Schmitt, N. (2008). Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schmitt, N. (2010). Researching vocabulary: A vocabulary research manual. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  67. Schonell, F. J. (1956). A study of the oral vocabulary of adults: An investigation into the spoken vocabulary of the Australian worker (Vol. 1). Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  68. Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Song, S., & Kellogg, D. (2011). Word meaning as a palimpsest: A defense of sociocultural theory. The Modern Language Journal, 95(4), 589–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sternberg, R. J. (1987). Most vocabulary is learned from context. In M. G. McKeown & M. E. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp. 89–105). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  71. Sternberg, R. J., & Powell, J. S. (1983). Comprehending verbal comprehension. American Psychologist, 38(8), 878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Velasco, D. G. (2009). Lexical competence and functional discourse grammar. ALFA: Revista de Linguística, 51(2), 165–187.Google Scholar
  73. Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language (trans: Kozulin, A.). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  74. Vygotsky, L. S. (1997). Educational psychology. Intro. V. V. Davydov (trans. Silverman, R.). Boca Raton: St. Lucie Press. (Originally published in Russian, 1926).Google Scholar
  75. Walters, J. M. (2004). Teaching the use of context to infer meaning: A longitudinal survey of L1 and L2 vocabulary research. Language Teaching, 37(4), 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Walters, J. M. (2006). Methods of teaching inferring meaning from context. RELC Journal, 37(2), 176–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Webb, S. A., & Chang, A. C.-S. (2015). How does prior word knowledge affect vocabulary learning progress in an extensive reading program? Studies in Second Language Acquisition. Available on CJO2015. doi:10.1017/S027226311 4000606.Google Scholar
  78. Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T. S. (2010). Lexical inferencing in a first and second language: Cross-linguistic dimensions. Clevedon/Avon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  79. Wilson, D. (2003). Relevance theory and lexical pragmatics. Italian Journal of Linguistics/Rivista di Linguistica, 15, 273–291.Google Scholar
  80. Wilson, D., & Carston, R. (2007). A unitary approach to lexical pragmatics: Relevance, inference and ad hoc concepts. Pragmatics, 1, 230–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wittgenstein, L. (2009). Philosophical investigation. UK: Wiley- Blackwell.Google Scholar
  82. Zufferey, S. (2010). Lexical pragmatics and theory of mind. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of English StudiesXi’an International Studies UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations