Pharmaceutical Care and Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Martin SchulzEmail author
  • Katrin Krueger
  • Nina Griese-Mammen
  • Ross Tsuyuki


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are often accompanied with comorbidities and, therefore, with multiple drug regimens. Drug-related morbidity and mortality due to drug-related problems (DRPs) represent a serious problem in these patients. Pharmacists’ intervention can detect and solve or prevent DRPs. However, DRPs in CVDs are currently not a validated surrogate outcome. Nevertheless, suggested interventions are medication reconciliation and reviews, patient education and counseling (to improve self-care and medication adherence), additional written information (medication plan) and pillboxes (weekly dosing aids) to improve adherence, and monitoring of clinical parameters, among others. Apart from hypertension and CVD risk reduction, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with robust designs, studying large populations, adequate follow-up periods, and sufficiently powered to detect clinical relevant differences in endpoints are needed. The evidence gained will provide standards for the interventions and outcome measures, both to compare studies and approaches to implement them reimbursed in daily pharmaceutical practice.


Pharmaceutical care Cardiovascular diseases Medication adherence Hypertension Angina pectoris Myocardial infarction Heart failure Cerebrovascular diseases 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schulz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katrin Krueger
    • 2
  • Nina Griese-Mammen
    • 2
  • Ross Tsuyuki
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MedicineFederal Union of German Associations of PharmacistsBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Scientific EvaluationFederal Union of German Associations of PharmacistsBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Division of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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