Theory and Practice of EDF Scheduling in Distributed Real-Time Systems

  • J. Javier Gutiérrez
  • Héctor Pérez
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10873)


The behavior of EDF schedulers has been very extensively studied for single-processor systems and there is also a lot of work on scheduling and schedulability analysis techniques dealing with EDF in homogeneous multiprocessor systems. However, if distributed systems are considered, only a small number of schedulability analysis techniques are available and there is only a little information on practical experience with this kind of systems. For distributed systems where a clock synchronization mechanism is not available, a recent work has theoretically shown how a feasible deadline assignment can significantly increase the utilization of processing resources while keeping the system schedulable (i.e., meeting all the timing requirements). On the other hand, Ada provides support for building applications scheduled by EDF. This paper proposes a set of experiments to contrast the theoretical results on scheduling deadline assignment in a distributed real-time application against those obtained through its real execution.


Distributed systems Real-time EDF Schedulability analysis Scheduling deadline assignment Ada applications 


  1. 1.
    SHaRK (Soft Hard Real-Time Kernel) home page.
  2. 2.
    ERIKA Enterprise: Evidence home page.
  3. 3.
    Diederichs, C., Margull, U., Slomka, F., Wirrer, G.: An application-based EDF scheduler for OSEK/VDX. In: Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE 2008, pp. 1045–1050 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pedreiras, P., Almeida, L.: EDF message scheduling on controller area network. Comput. Control Eng. J. 13(4), 163–170 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Di Natale, M., Meschi, A.: Scheduling messages with earliest deadline techniques. Real Time Syst. 20(3), 255–285 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qian, T., Mueller, F., Xin, Y.: Hybrid EDF packet scheduling for real-time distributed systems. In: Proceedings of the 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, Lund, Sweden, pp. 37–46 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    OMG (Object Management Group): Realtime Corba Specification, v1.2 (2005),
  8. 8.
    RTSJ (Real-Time Specification for Java) home page.
  9. 9.
    ISO/IEC, 2012: Ada 2012 Reference Manual. Language and Standard Libraries - International Standard ISO/IEC 8652:2012(E) (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, C.L., Layland, J.W.: Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard-real-time environment. J. ACM 20(1), 46–61 (1973)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buttazzo, G.: Rate monotonic vs. EDF: judgment day. Real Time Syst. 29(1), 5–26 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davis, R.I., Burns, A., Baruah, S., Rothvoß, T., George, L., Gettings, O.: Exact comparison of fixed priority and EDF scheduling based on speedup factors for both pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive paradigms. Real Time Syst. 51(5), 561–601 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davis, R.I., Burns, A.: A survey of hard real-time scheduling for multiprocessor systems. ACM Comput. Surv. 43(4), 35:1–35:44 (2011). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bertogna, M., Cirinei, M., Lipari, G.: Schedulability analysis of global scheduling algorithms on multiprocessor platforms. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 20(4), 553–566 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baruah, S., Fisher, N.: Non-migratory feasibility and migratory schedulability analysis of multiprocessor real-time systems. Real Time Syst. 39(1–3), 97–122 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baruah, S.: Partitioned EDF scheduling: a closer look. Real Time Syst. 49(6), 715–729 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gracioli, G., Fröhlich, A.A., Pellizzoni, R., Fischmeister, S.: Implementation and evaluation of global and partitioned scheduling in a real-time OS. Real Time Syst. 49(6), 669–714 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rivas, J.M., Gutiérrez, J.J., Palencia, J.C., González Harbour, M.: Deadline assignment in EDF schedulers for real-time distributed systems. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 26(10), 2671–2684 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Burns, A.: An EDF run-time profile based on Ravenscar. Ada Lett. XXXIII(1), 24–31 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burns, A., Gutiérrez, M., Aldea, M., González Harbour, M.: Deadline-floor inheritance protocol for edf scheduled embedded real-time systems with resource sharing. IEEE Trans. Comput. 64(5), 1241–1253 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burns, A., Wellings, A.: The deadline floor protocol and Ada. Ada Lett. XXXVI(1), 29–34 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MAST home page.
  23. 23.
    González Harbour, M., Gutiérrez, J.J., Drake, J.M., López, P., Palencia, J.C.: Modeling distributed real-time systems with MAST 2. J. Syst. Architect. 59(6), 331–340 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Object Management Group: UML Profile for MARTE: Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems. OMG Document, v1.1 formal/2011–06-02 (2011)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rivas, J.M., Gutiérrez, J.J., Palencia, J.C., González Harbour, M.: Optimized deadline assignment and schedulability analysis for distributed real-time systems with local EDF scheduling. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Embedded Systems and Applications, ESA 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, pp. 150–156 (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spuri, M.: Holistic analysis for deadline scheduled real-time distributed systems. Technical report RR-2873, INRIA, France (1996)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu, J.: Real-Time Systems. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    Rivas, M.A., González Harbour, M.: MaRTE OS: an Ada kernel for real-time embedded applications. In: Craeynest, D., Strohmeier, A. (eds.) Ada-Europe 2001. LNCS, vol. 2043, pp. 305–316. Springer, Heidelberg (2001). Scholar
  30. 30.
    MaRTE OS home page.
  31. 31.
    Aldea Rivas, M., González Harbour, M., Ruiz, J.F.: Implementation of the Ada 2005 task dispatching model in MaRTE OS and GNAT. In: Kordon, F., Kermarrec, Y. (eds.) Ada-Europe 2009. LNCS, vol. 5570, pp. 105–118. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Software Engineering and Real-Time GroupUniversidad de CantabriaSantanderSpain

Personalised recommendations