Systems Modeling: Methodologies and Tools pp 63-78 | Cite as

# Deterministic Network Calculus Analysis of Multicast Flows

- 782 Downloads

## Abstract

Guaranteeing performance bounds of data flows is an essential part of network engineering and certification of networks with real-time constraints. A prevalent analytical method to derive guarantees for end-to-end delay and buffer size is Deterministic Network Calculus (DNC). Due to the DNC system model, one decisive restriction is that only unicast flows can be analyzed. Previous attempts to analyze networks with multicast flows circumvented this restriction instead of overcoming it. E.g., they replaced the system model with an overly-pessimistic one that consists of unicast flows only. Such approaches impair modeling accuracy and thus inevitably result in inaccurate performance bounds.

In this chapter, we approach the problem of multicast flows differently. We start from the existing DNC analysis procedure, the unicast feed-forward analysis, and generalize it to a multicast feed-forward analysis. To that end, we contribute a novel analysis procedure that leaves the network model containing multicast flows unchanged, preserves its accuracy, allows for DNC principles such as pay multiplexing only once, and therefore derives more accurate performance bounds than existing approaches.

## Keywords

Deterministic Network Calculus (DNC) Multicast Flows Unicast Flows Leftover Service AFDX Network## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Bruno Oliveira Cattelan for his work on implementing the explicit intermediate bounds analysis and the multicast feed-forward analysis in the Disco Deterministic Network Calculator.

## References

- 1.H. Bauer, Analyse pire cas de flux hétérogènes dans un réseau embarqué avion. Ph.D. thesis, Université de Toulouse, 2011Google Scholar
- 2.H. Bauer, J. Scharbarg, C. Fraboul, Applying and optimizing trajectory approach for performance evaluation of AFDX avionics network, in
*Proceedings of IEEE ETFA*(2009)Google Scholar - 3.L. Bisti, L. Lenzini, E. Mingozzi, G. Stea, Numerical analysis of worst-case end-to-end delay bounds in fifo tandem networks. Springer Real-Time Syst. J.
**48**, 527–569 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 4.S. Bondorf, F. Geyer, Generalizing network calculus analysis to derive performance guarantees for multicast flows, in
*Proceedings of EAI ValueTools*(2016)Google Scholar - 5.S. Bondorf, J.B. Schmitt, The DiscoDNC v2 – a comprehensive tool for deterministic network calculus, in
*Proceedings of EAI ValueTools*(2014)Google Scholar - 6.S. Bondorf, J.B. Schmitt, Boosting sensor network calculus by thoroughly bounding cross-traffic, in
*Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM*(2015)Google Scholar - 7.S. Bondorf, J.B. Schmitt, Calculating accurate end-to-end delay bounds – you better know your cross-traffic, in
*Proceedings of EAI ValueTools*(2015)Google Scholar - 8.S. Bondorf, J.B. Schmitt, Improving cross-traffic bounds in feed-forward networks – there is a job for everyone, in
*Proceedings of GI/ITG MMB & DFT*(2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 9.S. Bondorf, P. Nikolaus, J.B. Schmitt, Quality and cost of deterministic network calculus – design and evaluation of an accurate and fast analysis, in
*Proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS*(2017)Google Scholar - 10.A. Bouillard,
*Algorithms and Efficiency of Network Calculus*. Habilitation thesis, ENS, 2014Google Scholar - 11.M. Boyer, P. Roux, A common framework embedding network calculus and event stream theory, in
*Proceedings of IEEE ETFA*(2016)Google Scholar - 12.M. Boyer, N. Navet, M. Fumey, Experimental assessment of timing verification techniques for AFDX, in
*Proceedings of ERTS*(2012)Google Scholar - 13.C.S. Chang,
*Performance Guarantees in Communication Networks*(Springer, Berlin, 2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 14.F. Geyer, G. Carle, Network engineering for real-time networks: comparison of automotive and aeronautic industries approaches. IEEE Commun. Mag.
**54**, 106–112 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 15.J. Grieu, Analyse et évaluation de techniques de commutation Ethernet pour l’interconnexion des systèmes avioniques. Ph.D. thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2004Google Scholar
- 16.O. Hotescu, K. Jaffres-Runser, J.L. Scharbarg, C. Fraboul, Towards quality of service provision with avionics full duplex switching, in
*Euromicro ECRTS, Work-in-Progress Session*(2017)Google Scholar - 17.G. Kemayo, N. Benammar, F. Ridouard, H. Bauer, P. Richard, Improving AFDX End-to-End delays analysis, in
*Proceedings of IEEE ETFA*(2015)Google Scholar - 18.K. Lampka, S. Bondorf, J.B. Schmitt, N. Guan, W. Yi, Generalized finitary real-time calculus, in
*Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM*(2017)Google Scholar - 19.J.-Y. Le Boudec, P. Thiran,
*Network Calculus: A Theory of Deterministic Queuing Systems for the Internet*(Springer, Berlin, 2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 20.S. Martin, P. Minet, Schedulability analysis of flows scheduled with FIFO: application to the expedited forwarding class, in
*Proceedings of IPDPS*(2006)Google Scholar - 21.J. Migge, L’ordonnancement sous contraintes temps-réel un modèle à base de trajectoires. Ph.D. thesis, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, 1999Google Scholar
- 22.J.B. Schmitt, F.A. Zdarsky, M. Fidler, Delay bounds under arbitrary multiplexing: when network calculus leaves you in the lurch…, in
*Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM*(2008)Google Scholar - 23.J.B. Schmitt, F.A. Zdarsky, I. Martinovic, Improving performance bounds in feed-forward networks by paying multiplexing only once, in
*Proceedings of GI/ITG MMB*(2008)Google Scholar - 24.K. Tindell, J. Clark, Holistic schedulability analysis for distributed hard real-time systems. Microprocess. Microprogramm.
**40**, 117–134 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 25.N. Tobeck, Enforcing domain segregation in unified cabin data networks, in
*Proceedings of IEEE/AIAA DASC*(2017)Google Scholar