Microbial Biodegradation and Metabolism of BPA

  • Magdalena ZIELIŃSKAEmail author


Microorganisms play an important role in BPA removal. The BPA molecule can be readily metabolized by many microbial communities and BPA-degrading strains have been isolated from water, soil and biomass from wastewater treatment systems. BPA degradation in the environment is mainly due to bacterial metabolism, though, the activities of fungi and algae in BPA degradation are also discussed. The metabolites produced during degradation of BPA under aerobic conditions have been exhaustively studied and several BPA degradation pathways have been proposed. Some information is also presented on the enzymes and genes that are involved in BPA degradation. The role of species composition and adaptation of the microbial community to BPA removal is discussed, as well as environmental factors that may influence the efficiency of BPA degradation. A summary of this information will help readers better understand the fate of BPA in the environment, how BPA degradation by different groups of microorganisms proceeds and finally, how to design treatment lines to ensure efficient BPA removal.


Algal-bacterial System Strain TTNP3 Basilensis Sphingomonas Ligninolytic Enzymes 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Badiefar L, Yakhchali B, Rodriguez-Couto S et al (2015) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by the newly-isolated Enterobacter gergoviae strain BYK-7 enhanced using genetic manipulation. RSC Adv 5:29563–29572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai X, Shi H, Ye Z et al (2013) Degradation of bisphenol A by microorganisms immobilized on polyvinyl alcohol microspheres. Front Environ Sci Eng 7:844–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cabana H, Jones JP, Agathos SN (2007) Elimination of endocrine disrupting chemicals using white rot fungi and their lignin modifying enzymes: a review. Eng Life Sci 7:429–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chai W, Handa Y, Suzuki M et al (2005) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by fungi. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 120:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang SW, Hyman MR, Williamson KJ (2003) Cooxidation of naphthalene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the nitrifying bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea. Biodegradation 13:373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Croft MT, Lawrence AD, Raux-Deery E et al (2005) Algae acquire vitamin B-12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Nature 438:90–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eio EJ, Kawai M, Niwa C et al (2015) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by an algal-bacterial system. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 22:15145–15153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El Fantroussi S, Agathos SN (2005) Is bioaugmentation a feasible strategy for pollutant removal and site remediation? Curr Opin Microbiol 8:268–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferro Orozco AM, Contreras EM, Zaritzky NE (2016) Biodegradation of bisphenol A and its metabolic intermediates by activated sludge: stoichiometry and kinetics analysis. Int Biodeter Biodegr 106:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fischer J, Kappelmeyer U, Kastner M et al (2010) The degradation of bisphenol A by the newly isolated bacterium Cupriavidus basilensis JF1 can be enhanced by biostimulation with phenol. Int Biodeter Biodegr 64:324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fukuda T, Uchida H, Takashima Y et al (2001) Degradation of bisphenol A by purified laccase from Trametes villosa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 284:704–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gassara F, Brar SK, Verma M et al (2013) Bisphenol A degradation in water by ligninolytic enzymes. Chemosphere 92:1356–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gattullo CE, Bährs H, Steinberg CEW et al (2012) Removal of bisphenol A by the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium braunii and the role of natural organic matter. Sci Total Environ 416:501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gulnaz O, Dincer S (2009) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by Chlorella vulgaris and Aeromonas hydrophilia. J Appl Biol Sci 3:79–84Google Scholar
  15. Hirano T, Honda Y, Watanabe T et al (2000) Degradation of bisphenol A by the lignin-degrading enzyme, manganese peroxidase, produced by the white-rot basidiomycete. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:1958–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hirooka T, Nagase H, Uchida K et al (2005) Biodegradation of bisphenol A and disappearance of its estrogenic activity by the green alga Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:1896–1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang Q, Weber JW (2005) Transformation and removal of bisphenol A from aqueous phase via peroxidase-mediated oxidative coupling reactions: efficacy, products, and pathways. Environ Sci Technol 39:6029–6036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ike M, Jin CS, Fujita M (1995) Isolation and characterization of a novel bisphenol A-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas paucimobilis strain FJ-4. Jpn J Water Trt Biol 31:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ike M, Chen MY, Jin CS et al (2002) Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of biodegradation products of bisphenol-A. Environ Toxicol 17:457–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ishihara K, Nakajima N (2003) Improvement of marine environmental pollution using eco-system: decomposition and recovery of endocrine disrupting chemicals by marine phyto- and zooplanktons. J Mol Catal B 23:419–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ji MK, Kabra AN, Choi J et al (2014) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas mexicana and Chlorella vulgaris. Ecol Eng 73:260–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kamaraj M, Manjudevi M, Sivaraj R (2012) Degradation of bisphenol A by Aspergillus sp. isolated from tannery industry effluent. Int J Phar Life Sci 3:1585–1589Google Scholar
  23. Kamaraj M, Sivaraj R, Venckatesh R (2014) Biodegradation of bisphenol A by the tolerant bacterial species isolated from coastal regions of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Int Biodeter Biodegr 93:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kang JH, Kondo F (2002a) Bisphenol A degradation by bacteria isolated from river water. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 43:265–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kang JH, Kondo F (2002b) Effects of bacterial counts and temperature on the biodegradation of bisphenol A in river water. Chemosphere 49:493–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kang JH, Ri N, Kondo F (2004) Streptomyces sp. strain isolated from river water has high bisphenol A degradability. Lett Appl Microbiol 39:178–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kolvenbach B, Schlaich N, Raoui Z et al (2007) Degradation pathway of bisphenol A: does ipso substitution apply to phenols containing a quaternary α-carbon structure in the para position? Appl Environ Microbiol 73:4776–4784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee SM, Koo BW, Choi JW et al (2005) Degradation of bisphenol A by white rot fungi, Stereum hirsutum and Heterobasidium insulare, and reduction of its estrogenic activity. Biol Pharm Bull 28:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li R, Liu Y, Chen G et al (2008) Physiological responses of the alga Cyclotella caspia to bisphenol A exposure. Bot Mar 51:360–369Google Scholar
  30. Li R, Chen GZ, Tam NFY et al (2009) Toxicity of bisphenol A and its bioaccumulation and removal by a marine microalga Stephanodiscus hantzschii. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li G, Zu L, Wong PK et al (2012) Biodegradation and detoxification of bisphenol A with one newly-isolated strain Bacillus sp. GZB: kinetics, mechanism and estrogenic transition. Bioresour Technol 114:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lobos JH, Leib TK, Su TM (1992) Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1823–1831Google Scholar
  33. Masuda M, Yamasaki Y, Ueno S et al (2007) Isolation of bisphenol A-tolerant/degrading Pseudomonas monteilii strain N-502. Extremophiles 11:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matsumura Y, Hosokawa C, Sasaki-Mori M et al (2009) Isolation and characterization of novel bisphenol-A-degrading bacteria from soils. Biocontrol Sci 14:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Matsumura Y, Akahira-Moriya A, Sasaki-Mori M (2015) Bioremediation of bisphenol-A polluted soil by Sphingomonas bisphenolicum AO1 and the microbial community existing in the soil. Biocontrol Sci 20:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mishra BK, Pandey Lata AK (2007) Lignocellulolytic enzyme production from submerged fermentation of paddy straw. Indian J Microbiol 47:176–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nakajima N, Teramoto T, Kasai F et al (2007) Glycosylation of bisphenol A by freshwater microalgae. Chemosphere 69:934–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nomiyama K, Tanizaki T, Koga T et al (2007) Oxidative degradation of BPA using TiO2 in water, and transition of estrogenic activity in the degradation pathways. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ohko Y, Ando I, Niwa C et al (2001) Degradation of bisphenol A in water by TiO2 photocatalyst. Environ Sci Technol 35:2365–2368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Peng YH, Chen YJ, Chang YJ et al (2015) Biodegradation of bisphenol A with diverse microorganisms from river sediment. J Hazard Mater 286:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Qian S, Yan L, Pei-Hsin C, Po-Yi P et al (2012) Transformation of bisphenol A and alkylphenols by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria through nitration. Environ Sci Technol 46:4442–4448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roh H, Subramanya N, Zhao F et al (2009) Biodegradation potential of wastewater micropollutants by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Chemosphere 77:1084–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sakai K, Yamanaka H, Moriyoshi K et al (2007) Biodegradation of bisphenol A and related compounds by Sphingomonas sp. strain BP-7 isolated from seawater. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sakurai A, Toyoda S, Masuda M et al (2001) Removal of bisphenol A by peroxidase-catalyzed reaction using culture broth of Coprinus cinereus. J Chem Eng Jpn 37(2):137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sasaki M, Akahira A, Oshiman K et al (2005) Purification of cytochrome P450 and ferredoxin, involved in bisphenol A degradation, from Sphingomonas sp. strain AO1. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:8024–8030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sasaki M, Tsuchido T, Matsumura Y (2008) Molecular cloning and characterization of cytochrome P450 and ferredoxin genes involved in bisphenol A degradation in Sphingomonas bisphenolicum strain AO1. J Appl Microbiol 105:1158–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shi J, Fujisawa S, Nakai S et al (2004) Biodegradation of natural and synthetic estrogens by nitrifying activated sludge and ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. Water Res 38:2323–2330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shimoda K, Yamamoto R, Hamada H (2011) Bioremediation of bisphenol A by glycosylation with immobilized marine microalga Amphidinium crassum—bioremediation of bisphenol A by immobilized cells. Adv Chem Eng Sci 1:90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spivack J, Leib TK, Lobos JH (1994) Novel pathway for bacterial metabolism of bisphenol A. Rearrangements and stilbene cleavage in bisphenol A metabolism. J Biol Chem 269:7323–7329Google Scholar
  50. Suzuki K, Hirai H, Murata H et al (2003) Removal of estrogenic activities of 17β-estradiol and ethinylestradiol by ligninolytic enzymes from white rot fungi. Water Res 37:1972–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Suzuki T, Nakagawa Y, Takano I et al (2004) Environmental fate of bisphenol A and its biological metabolites in river water and their xeno-estrogenic activity. Environ Sci Technol 38:2389–2396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tanghe T, Dhooge W, Verstraete W (1999) Isolation of bacterial strain able to degrade branched nonylphenol. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:746–751Google Scholar
  53. Telke AA, Kalyani DC, Jadhav UU et al (2009) Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from a Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 and its application for the removal of bisphenol A. J Mol Catal B Enzym 61:252–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Toyama T, Sato Y, Inoue D et al (2009) Biodegradation of bisphenol A and bisphenol F in the rhizosphere sediment of Phragmites australis. J Biosci Bioeng 108:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tsutsumi Y, Haneda T, Nishida T (2001) Removal of estrogenic activities of bisphenol A and nonylphenol by oxidative enzymes from lignin-degrading basidiomycetes. Chemosphere 42:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Uchida H, Fukuda T, Miyamoto H et al (2001) Polymerization of bisphenol A by purified laccase from Trametes villosa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:355–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yang Y, Wang Z, Xie S (2014) Aerobic biodegradation of bisphenol A in river sediment and associated bacterial community change. Sci Total Environ 470–471:1184–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yim SH, Kim HJ, Lee IS (2003) Microbial metabolism of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A. Arch Pharm Res 10:805–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhang C, Zeng G, Yuan L et al (2007) Aerobic degradation of bisphenol A by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain B-16 isolated from compost leachate of municipal solid waste. Chemosphere 68:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang W, Xiong B, Sun WF et al (2014) Acute and chronic toxic effects of bisphenol A on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus. Environ Toxicol 29(6):714–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhou NA, Kjeldal H, Gough HL et al (2015) Identification of putative genes involved in bisphenol a degradation using differential protein abundance analysis of Sphingobium sp. BiD32. Environ Sci Technol 49:12232–12241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zielińska M, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska A, Bernat K et al (2014) Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) in a nitrifying system with immobilized biomass. Bioresour Technol 171:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magdalena ZIELIŃSKA
    • 1
    Email author
    • 1
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

Personalised recommendations