Sources and Properties of BPA

  • Magdalena ZIELIŃSKAEmail author


BPA was first synthesized by Aleksandr P. Dianin in 1891 and was investigated for potential commercial use in the 1930s during a search for synthetic estrogens. In the 1940s and 50s, uses for BPA were identified in the plastics industry. The sources of BPA pollution in the environment and human surroundings include not only accidental spills and industrial wastes and effluents, but also many diffuse sources, including many common and household products. BPA concentrations are generally lower than 1 µg/L in aquatic environments; however, they are often two to three orders of magnitude higher in industrial effluents. Exposure to BPA has been associated with various negative health effects, including effects on reproduction and development, although its low-dose toxicity is still controversial. At this time, it is unknown which sources of BPA exposure contribute most to total exposure levels.


Biota-sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) Dispersive Liquid–liquid Microextraction (DLLME) Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP) Trophic Magnification Factor (TMF) Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magdalena ZIELIŃSKA
    • 1
    Email author
    • 1
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

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