CognitOS: A Student-Centric Working Environment for an Attention-Aware Intelligent Classroom

  • Anastasia Ntagianta
  • Maria KoroziEmail author
  • Asterios Leonidis
  • Margherita Antona
  • Constantine Stephanidis
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 852)


The emergence of Intelligent Classrooms, and in particular classrooms equipped with facilities for identifying the students’ attention levels, has raised the need for appropriate student-friendly tools that not only facilitate application hosting, but also acts as the means to re-engage inattentive students in the educational process. This work presents CognitOS, a web-based working environment that hosts several types of applications (i.e., exercises, multimedia viewer, digital book) that are utilized as channels to present interventions dictated by the intelligent decision-making mechanisms of the attention-aware classroom. This paper presents the functionality of CognitOS and the design process followed for its development.


Intelligent classroom Educational interventions Educational working environment 



This work is supported by the FORTH-ICS internal RTD Program “Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments”.


  1. 1.
    Szpunar, K.K., Moulton, S.T., Schacter, D.L.: Mind wandering and education: from the classroom to online learning. Front. Psychol. 4, 495 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rapp, D.N.: The value of attention aware systems in educational settings. Comput. Hum. Behav. 22, 603–614 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sousa, D.A.: How the Brain Learns. Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Johnstone, A.H., Percival, F.: Attention breaks in lectures. Educ. Chem. 13, 49–50 (1976)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bligh, D.A.: What’s the Use of Lectures?. Intellect Books, Exeter (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bunce, D.M., Flens, E.A., Neiles, K.Y.: How long can students pay attention in class? A study of student attention decline using clickers. J. Chem. Educ. 87, 1438–1443 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prince, M.: Does active learning work? A review of the research. J. Eng. Educ. 93, 223–231 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burke, L.A., Ray, R.: Re-setting the concentration levels of students in higher education: an exploratory study. Teach. High. Educ. 13, 571–582 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bonwell, C.C., Eison, J.A.: Active learning: creating excitement in the classroom. 1991 ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports. ERIC (1991)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Korozi, M., Leonidis, A., Antona, M., Stephanidis, C.: LECTOR: towards reengaging students in the educational process inside smart classrooms. In: Horain, P., Achard, C., Mallem, M. (eds.) IHCI 2017. LNCS, vol. 10688, pp. 137–149. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fails, J.A., Druin, A., Guha, M.L., Chipman, G., Simms, S., Churaman, W.: Child’s play: a comparison of desktop and physical interactive environments. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Interaction Design and Children, pp. 48–55. ACM (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McKay, S., Rice, C.: Providing access to technology with Edubuntu Linux. In: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, pp. 2051–2052. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Puppy Linux Home.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Barrios, V.M.G., Gütl, C., Preis, A.M., Andrews, K., Pivec, M., Mödritscher, F., Trummer, C.: AdELE: a framework for adaptive e-learning through eye tracking. In: Proceedings of IKNOW, pp. 609–616 (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Slykhuis, D.A., Wiebe, E.N., Annetta, L.A.: Eye-tracking students’ attention to PowerPoint photographs in a science education setting. J. Sci. Educ. Technol. 14, 509–520 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang, H., Chignell, M., Ishizuka, M.: Empathic tutoring software agents using real-time eye tracking. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications, pp. 73–78. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Merten, C., Conati, C.: Eye-tracking to model and adapt to user meta-cognition in intelligent learning environments. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 39–46. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sibert, J.L., Gokturk, M., Lavine, R.A.: The reading assistant: eye gaze triggered auditory prompting for reading remediation. In: Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 101–107. ACM (2000)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen, J., Zhu, B., Balter, O., Xu, J., Zou, W., Hedman, A., Chen, R., Sang, M.: FishBuddy: promoting student engagement in self-paced learning through wearable sensing. In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP), pp. 1–9 (2017)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leonidis, A., Korozi, M., Margetis, G., Ntoa, S., Papagiannakis, H., Antona, M., Stephanidis, C.: A glimpse into the ambient classroom. Bull. IEEE Tech. Comm. Learn. Technol. 14, 3–6 (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leonidis, A., Arampatzis, D., Louloudakis, N., Stephanidis, C.: The AmI-Solertis system: creating user experiences in smart environments. In: Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (2017)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ur, B., McManus, E., Pak Yong Ho, M., Littman, M.L.: Practical trigger-action programming in the smart home. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 803–812. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ur, B., Pak Yong Ho, M., Brawner, S., Lee, J., Mennicken, S., Picard, N., Schulze, D., Littman, M.L.: Trigger-action programming in the wild: an analysis of 200,000 IFTTT recipes. In: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3227–3231. ACM, New York (2016)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Korozi, M., Antona, M., Ntagianta, A., Leonidis, A., Stephanidis, C.: LECTORstudio: creating Inattention alarms and interventions to reengage the students in the educational process. In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (2017)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Abramowitz, A.J., O’Leary, S.G., Rosén, L.A.: Reducing off-task behavior in the classroom: a comparison of encouragement and reprimands. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 15, 153–163 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hitz, R., Driscoll, A.: Praise in the Classroom (1989)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    ISO 9241-210:2010 - Ergonomics of Human-System Interaction – Part 210: Human-Centred Design for Interactive Systems.
  33. 33.
    Piaget, J.: Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child. Trans. D. Coltman, Oxford (1970)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Loranger, H., Nielsen, J.: Teenagers on the Web: Usability Guidelines for Creating Compelling Websites for Teens. Nielsen Norman Group, Fremont (2005)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hanna, L., Risden, K., Czerwinski, M., Alexander, K.J.: The role of usability research in designing children’s computer products. In: The Design of Children’s Technology, pp. 3–26. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco (1998)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Druin, A., Bederson, B., Boltman, A., Miura, A., Knotts-Callahan, D., Platt, M.: Children as Our Technology Design Partners+. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco (1998)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Said, N.S.: An engaging multimedia design model. In: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Interaction Design and Children: Building a Community, pp. 169–172. ACM (2004)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kaplan, N., Chisik, Y., Knudtzon, K., Kulkarni, R., Moulthrop, S., Summers, K., Weeks, H.: Supporting sociable literacy in the international children’s digital library. In: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Interaction Design and Children: Building a Community. ACM (2004)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Covington, M.V.: Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: an integrative review. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 51, 171–200 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., Middleton, M., Maehr, M.L., Urdan, T., Anderman, L.H., Anderman, E., Roeser, R.: The development and validation of scales assessing students’ achievement goal orientations. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 23, 113–131 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Urdan, T.C., Maehr, M.L.: Beyond a two-goal theory of motivation and achievement: a case for social goals. Rev. Educ. Res. 65, 213–243 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anastasia Ntagianta
    • 1
  • Maria Korozi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Asterios Leonidis
    • 1
  • Margherita Antona
    • 1
  • Constantine Stephanidis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Computer Science (ICS)Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH)HeraklionGreece
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of CreteHeraklionGreece

Personalised recommendations