Photons and Interference

Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


In this chapter, we will give the mathematical description of the previous chapter’s experiments. This will show us how we can calculate the probabilities of measurement outcomes in quantum mechanics. We need to introduce simple matrices and basic complex numbers.

Supplementary material (187 kb)
Supplementary material 1: The state of a system (zip 187 KB) (270 kb)
Supplementary material 2: Matrix multiplication (zip 269 KB) (279 kb)
Supplementary material 3: The plane of complex numbers (zip 278 KB) (189 kb)
Supplementary material 4: The polar decomposition of complex numbers with radius r = 1 (zip 188 KB) (198 kb)
Supplementary material 5: A gravitational wave detector (zip 197 KB)


  1. B.P. Abbott et al., GW170104: observation of a 50-solar-mass binary black hole coalescence at redshift 0.2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 22110 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. M. Born, Zur Quantenmechanik der Stoßvorgänge. Z. Phys. 37, 863 (1926)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. P.A.M. Dirac, The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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