Advertisement

Narcissism and the Big Five/HEXACO Models of Personality

  • Beth A. VisserEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Personality psychologists have typically characterized narcissism as grandiose narcissism, resulting in a substantial literature showing narcissism’s associations with high Extraversion and low Neuroticism and Agreeableness within the Big Five/Five-Factor Model of personality. To some extent, these personality correlates imply that narcissism is a relatively healthy if disagreeable personality variable. Using the six-factor HEXACO model of personality, it is clearer that narcissism belongs in the “dark triad” cluster of socially aversive personality traits, in that it is also characterized by low levels of Honesty-Humility. In this chapter, issues around the conceptualization and measurement of both narcissism and personality are discussed, including the lack of research on vulnerable narcissism within the HEXACO personality framework.

Keywords

Big Five Five-Factor Model HEXACO model Extraversion Neuroticism Agreeableness Honesty-Humility 

References

  1. Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W., & Kashy, D. A. (2011). What does the narcissistic personality inventory really measure? Assessment, 18, 67–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2001). A theoretical basis for the major dimensions of personality. European Journal of Personality, 15, 327–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Book, A., Visser, B. A., & Volk, A. (2015). Unpacking “Evil”: Claiming the core of the dark triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 73, 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Book, A., Visser, B., Blais, J., Hosker-Field, A., Methot-Jones, T., Gauthier, N., et al. (2016). Unpacking more “Evil”: What is at the core of the dark tetrad? Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). The NEO personality inventory manual. Odessa, FL: PAR.Google Scholar
  6. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: PAR.Google Scholar
  7. Glover, N., Miller, J. D., Lynam, D. R., Crego, C., & Widiger, T. A. (2012). The five-factor narcissism inventory: A five-factor measure of narcissistic personality traits. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 500–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goldberg, L. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The big-five facture structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1216–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hyler, S. E. (1994). Personality diagnostic questionnaire-4. (Unpublished test). New York: NYSPI.Google Scholar
  10. John, O., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The big five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102–138). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  11. Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the short dark triad (SD3): A brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21, 28–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lahey, B. B. (2009). Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist, 64(4), 241–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2005). Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism in the five-factor model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1571–1582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2012). The H factor of personality: Why some people are manipulative, self-entitled, materialistic, and exploitive – and why it matters for everyone. Waterloo, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier Press.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2018). Psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100. Assessment, 25, 543–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee, R. M., Dean, B. L., & Jung, K. (2008). Social connectedness, extraversion, and subjective well-being: Testing a meditational model. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 414–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Wiltshire, J., Bourdage, J. S., Visser, B. A., & Gallucci, A. (2013). Sex, power, and money: Prediction from the dark triad and honesty-humility. European Journal of Personality, 27, 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lund, O. C. H., Tamnes, C. K., Mouestue, C., Buss, D. M., & Vollrath, M. (2007). Tactics of hierarchy negotiation. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lynam, D. R., Gaughan, E. T., Miller, J. D., Miller, D. J., Mullins-Sweatt, S., & Widiger, T. A. (2011). Assessing the basic traits associated with psychopathy: Development and validation of the elemental psychopathy assessment. Psychological Assessment, 23, 108–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Meere, M., & Egan, V. (2017). Everyday sadism, the dark triad, personality, and disgust sensitivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 112, 157–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller, J. D., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism. Journal of Personality, 76, 449–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller, J. D., & Maples, J. (2011). Trait personality models of narcissistic personality disorder, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism. In W. K. Campbell & J. D. Miller (Eds.), The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder: Theoretical approaches, empirical findings, and treatments (pp. 71–88). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Miller, J. D., Gaughan, E. T., Maples, J., & Price, J. A. (2011a). Comparison of agreeableness scores from the big five inventory and the NEO PI-R: Consequences for the study of narcissism and psychopathy. Assessment, 18, 335–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Gaughan, E. T., Gentile, B., Maples, J., & Campbell, W. K. (2011b). Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: A nomological network analysis. Journal of Personality, 79, 1013–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miller, J., Lynam, D., McCain, J., Few, L., Crego, C., Widiger, T., et al. (2016). Thinking structurally about narcissism: An examination of the five-factor narcissism inventory and its components. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nettle, D. (2005). An evolutionary approach to the extraversion continuum. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pincus, A. L., & Lukowitsky, M. R. (2010). Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 421–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pincus, A. L., Ansell, E. B., Pimentel, C. A., Cain, N. M., Wright, A. G. C., & Levy, K. N. (2009). Initial construction and validation of the pathological narcissism inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raskin, R. N., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal components analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Samuel, D. B., & Widiger, T. A. (2008). Convergence of narcissism measures from the perspective of general personality functioning. Assessment, 15, 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sedikides, C., Rudich, E. A., Gregg, A. P., Kumashiro, M., & Rusbult, C. (2004). Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy? Self-esteem matters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 400–416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas, K. M., Wright, A. G. C., Lukowitsky, M. R., Donnellan, M. B., & Hopwood, C. J. (2012). Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the pathological narcissism inventory. Assessment, 19, 135–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Trull, T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (2002). A five-factor perspective on personality disorder research. In P. Costa Jr. & T. Widiger (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (pp. 45–57). Washington, DC: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Visser, B. A., & Campbell, S. (2018). Measuring the dark side of personality. In T. Shackelford, & V. Zeigler-Hill (Eds.), Sage handbook of personality and individual differences (pp. 573-591).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  36. Visser, B. A., Pozzebon, J. A., & Reina-Tamayo, A. M. (2014). Status-driven risk taking: Another “dark” personality? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 46, 485–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Westhead, J., & Egan, V. (2015). Untangling the concurrent influences of the dark triad, personality and mating effort on violence. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 222–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lakehead UniversityOrilliaCanada

Personalised recommendations