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Adsorption-Oriented Processes Using Conventional and Non-conventional Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment

Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW,volume 18)

Abstract

The removal of contaminants from wastewaters is a matter of great interest in the field of water pollution. Amongst the numerous techniques of contaminant removal, adsorption using solid materials (named adsorbents) is a simple, useful and effective process. The adsorbent may be of mineral, organic or biological origin. Activated carbon is the preferred material at industrial scale and is extensively used not only for removing pollutants from wastewater streams but also for adsorbing contaminants from drinking water sources (e.g. rivers, lakes or reservoirs). However, its widespread use is restricted due to high cost. In the last three decades, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective adsorbents capable to eliminate pollutants at trace levels. This chapter gives a general overview of liquid-solid adsorption processes using conventional and non-conventional materials for pollutant removal. It outlines some of the principles of adsorption and proposes a classification for the different types of materials. Finally, the chapter discusses different mechanisms involved in the adsorption phenomena.

Keywords

  • Wastewater treatment
  • Pollutants
  • Adsorption
  • Commercial adsorbents
  • Non-conventional adsorbents
  • Green adsorbents
  • Mechanism

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-92111-2_2
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Abbreviations

AAS:

Atomic absorption spectroscopy

AC:

Activated carbons

BOD:

Biochemical oxygen demand

CAA:

Commercial activated alumina

CAC:

Commercial activated carbons

COD:

Chemical oxygen demand

DSC:

Differential scanning calorimetry

ESR:

Electron spin resonance spectroscopy

FT-IR:

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

GAC:

Granular activated carbon

ICP:

Inductively coupled plasma

ISE:

Ion selective electrode

LC-MS:

Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

NMR:

Nuclear magnetic resonance

OM:

Organic matter

PAC:

Powder activated carbon

PAH:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PCB:

Polychlorobiphenyls

PET:

Polyethylene terephthalate

PZC:

Point of zero charge

SEM:

Surface electron microscopy

SMEs:

Small and medium-size enterprises

SS:

Suspended solids

TGA:

Thermogravimetric analysis

TOC:

Total organic carbon

VOC:

Volatile organic compounds

XAS:

X-ray absorption spectroscopy

XPS:

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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Correspondence to Grégorio Crini .

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Crini, G., Lichtfouse, E., Wilson, L.D., Morin-Crini, N. (2018). Adsorption-Oriented Processes Using Conventional and Non-conventional Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment. In: Crini, G., Lichtfouse, E. (eds) Green Adsorbents for Pollutant Removal. Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World, vol 18. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92111-2_2

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