Tiles-Reflection: Designing for Reflective Learning and Change Behaviour in the Smart City

Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 95)

Abstract

Modern cities are increasing in geographical size, population and number. While this development ascribes cities an important function, it also entails various challenges. Efficient urban mobility, energy saving, waste reduction and increased citizen participation in public life are some of the pressing challenges recognized by the United Nations. Retaining livable cities necessitates a change in behaviour in the citizens, promoting sustainability and seeking an increase in the quality of life. Technology possesses the capabilities of mediating behaviour change. A review of existing works highlighted a rather unilateral utilization of technology, mostly consisting of mobile devices, employment of persuasive strategies for guiding behaviour change, and late end-user involvement in the design of the application, primarily for testing purposes. These findings leave the door open to unexplored research approaches, including opportunities stemming from the Internet of Things, reflective learning as behaviour change strategy, and active involvement of end-users in the design and development process. We present Tiles-Reflection, an extension of the Tiles toolkit, a card-based ideation toolkit for the Internet of Things. The extension comprises components for reflective learning, allowing thus non-expert end-users to co-create behaviour change applications. The results of the evaluation suggest that the tool was perceived as useful by participants, fostering reflection on different aspects connected to societal challenges in the smart city. Furthermore, application ideas developed by the users successfully implemented the reflective learning model adopted.

Keywords

IoT Reflective learning Smart cities 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all the students and volunteers that participated in the evaluation workshops, and Dr. Simone Mora for his work on the Tiles toolkit.

References

  1. 1.
    Albino, V., Berardi, U., Dangelico, R.M.: Smart cities: definitions, dimensions, performance, and initiatives. J. Urban Technol. 22(1), 3–21 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhamra, T., Lilley, D., Tang, T.: Design for sustainable behaviour: using products to change consumer behaviour. Des. J. 14(4), 427–445 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boud, D., Keogh, R., Walker, D.: Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. Routledge (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brynjarsdottir, H., Håkansson, M., Pierce, J., Baumer, E., DiSalvo, C., Sengers, P.: Sustainably unpersuaded: how persuasion narrows our vision of sustainability. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 947–956. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chourabi, H., Nam, T., Walker, S., Gil-Garcia, J.R., Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., Pardo, T.A., Scholl, H.J.: Understanding smart cities: an integrative framework. In: 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS), pp. 2289–2297. IEEE (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DESA: The World’s Cities in 2016. UN, p. 27 (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Driscoll, J., Teh, B.: The potential of reflective practice to develop individual orthopaedic nurse practitioners and their practice. J. Orthop. Nurs. 5(2), 95–103 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gianni, F., Divitini, M.: Technology-enhanced smart city learning: a systematic mapping of the literature. IxD&A 27, 28–43 (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gianni, F., Mora, S., Divitini, M.: IoT for smart city learning: towards requirements for an authoring tool. In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Smart Ecosystems Creation by Visual Design Co-Located with the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2016), CEUR-WS, Bari, Italy, vol. 1602, pp. 12–18, June 2016Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gil-Garcia, J.R., Pardo, T.A., Nam, T.: Smarter as the new urban agenda: a comprehensive view of the 21st century city. In: Smarter as the New Urban Agenda: A Comprehensive View of the 21st Century City, vol. 11, pp. 1–17. Springer (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gil-Garcia, J.R., Pardo, T.A., Nam, T.: What makes a city smart? identifying core components and proposing an integrative and comprehensive conceptualization. Inf. Polity 20(1), 61–87 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Habitat, U.: Urbanization and Development Emerging Futures. World Cities Report (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hallnäs, L., Redström, J.: Slow technology-designing for reflection. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 5(3), 201–212 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hemment, D., Townsend, A.: Smart Citizens, vol. 4. FutureEverything Publications, Manchester (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khansari, N., Mostashari, A., Mansouri, M.: Impacting sustainable behavior and planning in smart city. Int. J. Sustain. Land Use Urban Plann. (IJSLUP) 1(2) (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klecha, L., Gianni, F.: Designing for sustainable urban mobility behaviour: a systematic review of the literature. In: Citizen, Territory and Technologies: Smart Learning Contexts and Practices, vol. 80, pp. 137–149. Springer (2018)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krogstie, B.R., Prilla, M., Pammer, V.: Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: the CSRL model. In: European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, pp. 151–164. Springer (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lam, D., Head, P.: Sustainable urban mobility. In: Energy, Transport, and the Environment, pp. 359–371. Springer (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lidman, K., Renström, S.: How to Design for Sustainable Behaviour? A Review of Design Strategies and an Empirical Study of Four Product Concepts. Chalmers University of Technology (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marsh, J., Molinari, F., Rizzo, F., et al.: Human smart cities: a new vision for redesigning urban community and Citizen’s Life. In: Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems: Recent Trends, Advances and Solutions, pp. 269–278. Springer (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mora, S., Gianni, F., Divitini, M.: Tiles: a card-based ideation toolkit for the internet of things. In: Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, DIS 2017, pp. 587–598. ACM, Edinburgh (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nam, T., Pardo, T.A.: Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference: Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times, pp. 282–291. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nielsen, J.: Usability 101: Introduction to usability. Nielsen Norman Group (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oates, B.J.: Researching Information Systems and Computing. Sage, London (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Petersen, S.A., Canova-Calori, I., Krogstie, B.R., Divitini, M.: Reflective learning at the workplace-the MIRROR design toolbox. In: European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, pp. 478–483 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pettersen, I.N., Boks, C.: The ethics in balancing control and freedom when engineering solutions for sustainable behaviour. Int. J. Sustain. Eng. 1(4), 287–297 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ratti, C., Townsend, A.: The social nexus. Sci. Am. 305(3), 42–49 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reiersølmoen, M., Gianni, F., Divitini, M.: DELTA: promoting young people participation in urban planning. In: Conference on Smart Learning Ecosystems and Regional Development, vol. 80, pp. 77–89. Springer (2017)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Siegel, M.A., Beck, J.: Slow change interaction design. Interactions 21(1), 28–35 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wood, W., Quinn, J.M., Kashy, D.A.: Habits in everyday life: thought, emotion, and action. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83(6), 1281 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Gianni
    • 1
  • Lisa Klecha
    • 1
  • Monica Divitini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations