Subnational Tier of Arctic Governance

  • Alexander SerguninEmail author


In the post-Cold War era, subnational actors in the Arctic-regions, members of federations (in Canada, Russia and the United States), autonomies, administrative units, cities, and municipalities—are actively changing their roles in both policy-making and regional governance.


Subnational Tiers Subnational Actors Paradiplomacy Subnational Units Arctic Council 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ackrén M (2014) Greenlandic paradiplomatic relations. In: Heininen L (ed) Security and sovereignty in the North Atlantic. Palgrave, Basingstoke, pp 42–61Google Scholar
  2. Bulygin A (2012) Speztialist po graniztevedeniyu – real’nost [Specialist in border studies is a reality]. Pechenga, 8 Sept. Accessed 1 Aug 2013 (in Russian)
  3. Canadian Ministry of Agriculture and Agri-Food (2013) Alaska-Canada: agricultural trade = $8 million in 2012. Accessed 5 Nov 2016
  4. City Twins Association (2010) History of the city twins association. Accessed 1 Aug 2013
  5. Council of European Municipalities and Regions (2013) National associations of regional and local authorities. List of CEMR members. Accessed 1 Aug 2013
  6. Duchacek I (1986) The territorial dimension of politics: within, among, and across nations. Westview, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  7. Duchacek I (1990) Perforated sovereignties: towards a typology of new actors in international relations. In: Michelmann H, Soldatos P (eds) Federalism and international relations: the role of subnational units. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  8. Dushkova D, Evseev A (2011) Analiz Techogennogo Vozdeistviyana Geosistemy Evropeiskogo Severa Rossii [Analisys of technogenic impact on geosystems of the European Russian North]. Arktika i Sever (4):1–34. Accessed 23 Nov 2015 (in Russian)
  9. Ekologicheskoe Sostoyanie Impactnykh Raionov Sushi Arkticheskoi Zony Rossiyskoi Federatsii [The environmental situation in the impact zones of the terrestrial parts of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation] (2012). Accessed 23 Nov 2015 (in Russian)
  10. Farrell M, Hettne B, van Langenhove L (eds) (2005) Global politics of regionalism: theory and practice. Pluto Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Grimmer T (2013) Politicheskaya filosopfiya – osnofa uspekha [Political philosophy is a precondition for success]. Pechenga, 6 Feb. Accessed 1 Aug 2013 (in Russian)
  12. Handley S (2006) Take your partners. The local authority handbook on international partnerships. London: Local Government International Bureau. Accessed 27 May 2011
  13. Hobbs H (1994) City hall goes abroad: the foreign policy of local politics. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  14. Hocking B (1993) Localizing foreign policy: non-central governments and multilayered diplomacy. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Joenniemi P, Sergunin A (2014) Paradiplomacy as a capacity-building strategy: the case of Russia’s Northwestern subnational actors. Prob Post-Commun 61(6):18–33Google Scholar
  16. Kochemasov YV, Morgunov BA, Solomatin VI (2009) Ekologo-ekonomicheskaya Otsenka Perspectivy Razvitiya Arktiki [Ecological-economic assessment of perspectives of the arctic’s development].–04–24.htm. Accessed 23 Nov 2015 (in Russian)
  17. Lebed Y (2012) Bol’shie vozmozhnosti dlya zhitelei raiona [Greater opportunities for the district’s residents]. Pechenga, 2 June. Accessed 1 Aug 2013 (in Russian)
  18. McGuire D, Rupp S et al (2013) Annual 2012 progress report on the integrated ecosystem model for Alaska and Canada Project. Fairbanks: University of Alaska. Accessed 6 Nov 2016
  19. Nicol H (2016) Ripple effects: devolution, development and state sovereignty in the Canadian North. In: Heininen L (ed) Future security of the global Arctic: state policy, economic security and climate. Palgrave, Basingstoke, pp 99–120Google Scholar
  20. Nordic Council of Ministers (2009) Guidelines for the Nordic council of ministers’ cooperation with North-West Russia 2009–2013. Accessed 12 Sept 2012
  21. Olsson M (ed) (2016) Encyclopedia of the Barents Region. Pax Forlag, OsloGoogle Scholar
  22. Pogoretskaya O (2013a) Prioritet sotrudnichestva – prostye grazhdane [Ordinary citizens is a priority for cooperation]. Pechenga, 12 June. Accessed 1 Aug 2013 (in Russian)
  23. Pogoretskaya O (2013b). Uchis’, student! [Learn, student!]. Pechenga, 1 June. Accessed 1 Aug 2013 (in Russian)
  24. Rogova, A. (2008). From rejection to re-embracement. Language and identity of the Russian speaking minority in Kirkenes, Norway. Kirkenes: Barents InstituteGoogle Scholar
  25. Rogova A (2009) Chicken is not a bird—Kirkenes is not abroad. Borders and territories in perception of the population in a Russia-Norwegian borderland. J North Stud 1:31–42Google Scholar
  26. Scott J (2013) Construction of familiarity in finnish-Russian Karelia: shifting uses of history and the re-interpretation of regions. Eur Plan Stud 21(1):75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Söderbaum F, Shaw T (eds) (2003) Theories of new regionalism. Palgrave, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  28. Soglashenie mezhdu Pravitel’stvom Korolevstva Norvegija i Pravitel’stvom Rosssiyskoy Federatsii ob uproshchenii porjadka vzaimnyx poezdok zhiteley prigranichnyx territoriy Korolevstva Norvegija i Rossiyskoy Federatsii, Oslo, 2 November 2010 [Agreement between the government of the Kingdom of Norway and the government of the Russian Federation on facilitation of mutual trips of the residents of the border areas of the Kingdom of Norway and Russian Federation]. Accessed 1 Aug 2013 (in Russian)
  29. Soldatos P (1990) An explanatory framework for the study of federal states as foreign-policy actors. In: Michelmann H, Soldatos P (eds) Federalism and international relations: the role of subnational units, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 34–53Google Scholar
  30. Spierings B, Velde M (2008) Shopping, border, and unfamiliarity: consumer mobility in Europe. Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 99(4):497–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Spierings B, Velde M (2013a) Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity, and development policy in Europe. Eur Plan Stud 21(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Spierings B, Velde M (2013b) Cross-border differences and unfamiliarity: shopping mobility in the Dutch-German Rhine–Waal Euroregion. Eur Plan Stud 21(1):5–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. The Barents Euro-Arctic Council (2013) The Barents Cooperation. Accessed 19 Jan 2014

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations