The Changing Role of Military Power in the Arctic

  • Valery KonyshevEmail author
  • Alexander Sergunin


In the Cold War era, military power was a coercive instrument in a global confrontation between two superpowers and capitalist and socialist systems. The Arctic region was part of this global confrontation; it was a home for strategic nuclear forces (especially Soviet ones) and an important area for significant military activities. Both the United States and the Soviet Union pursued containment strategies, with mutually assured destruction (MAD) doctrine at their cores.


Significant Military Activities Global Confrontation High North Arctic Strategy Arms-control Regime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anishchuk A (2013) Russia needs Arctic presence to guard against U.S. threat: Putin. Chicago Tribune, 3 December.,0,5499339.story. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  2. Bender J (2014) The most isolated US military base could get a lot more important.–11. Accessed 14 Jan 2017
  3. Commission of the European Communities (2005) Roadmaps to the EU–Russia common spaces. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  4. Conley H (ed) (2013) The new foreign policy frontier. U.S. interests and actors in the Arctic. CSIS, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Conley H, Kraut J (2010) U.S. strategic interests in the Arctic. CSIS, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2011) Kingdom of Denmark strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  7. Declaration concerning the prevention of unregulated high seas fishing in the Central Arctic Ocean (2015). Accessed 6 Jan 2017
  8. De Souza M (2015) Canadian navy delays opening of crucial Arctic facility to 2018. Toronto Sun. Accessed 14 Jan 2017
  9. Dugin A (1991) Misterii Evrazii [The Mysteries of Eurasia]. Moscow: ArktogeiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Fonseca JR (2015) Arctic coast guard forum established, 31 Oct. Accessed 3 Jan 2017
  11. Government of Canada (2010) Statement on Canada’s Arctic foreign policy. Exercising sovereignty and promoting northern strategy abroad. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  12. Government of Canada (2016) Shipbuilding projects to equip the royal Canadian navy and the Canadian coast guard—national shipbuilding strategy: February 2012–December 2015 status report. Accessed 14 Jan 2017
  13. Gudev P (2014) Rossiya i SShA v Arktike: Obshie Interesy i Protivorechiya [Russia and the USA in the Arctic: Common Interests and Tensions]. Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Moscow. Accessed 6 Jan 2017 (in Russian)
  14. Jakobsson M, Mayer L, Coakley B et al (2012) The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3.0. Geophys Res Lett 39(L12609):1–6. Accessed 8 Jan 2017
  15. Khramchikhin A (2011) Voyenno-Politicheskaya Situatsiya v Arktike i Stsenarii Vozmozhnykh Konfliktov [Military-Political Situation in the Arctic and Scenarios of Possible Conflicts]. Arktika i Sever [The Arctic and the North]. 2:1–15. Accessed 11 Dec 2016 (in Russian)
  16. Khramchikhin A (2013) Stanet li Arktika Teatrom Voennykh Deistviy po Poslednemu Peredelu Mira [Will the Arctic Become a Military Theater for the Final Re-Division of the World?]. Arktika I Sever [The Arctic and the North]. 10:52–60. Accessed 10 Jan 2017 (in Russian)
  17. Klimenko E (2016) Russia’s Arctic security policy. Still quiet in the high north? SIPRI (SIPRI Policy Paper No. 45), StockholmGoogle Scholar
  18. Kochemasov YV, Morgunov BA, Solomatin VI (2009) Ekologo-ekonomicheskaya Otsenka Perspectivy Razvitiya Arktiki [Ecological-economic Assessment of Perspectives of the Arctic’s Development].–04–24.htm. Accessed 11 Dec 2016 (in Russian)
  19. Konyshev V, Sergunin A (2014a) Is Russia a revisionist military power in the Arctic? Defense and Secur Anal 3:1–13Google Scholar
  20. Konyshev V, Sergunin A (2014b) Russian military strategies in the high north. In: Heininen L (ed) Security and sovereignty in the North Atlantic. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp 80–99Google Scholar
  21. Lasserre F, Le Roy J, Garon R (2012) Is there an arms race in the Arctic? J Mil Strateg Stud 14(3–4):43–57Google Scholar
  22. Laruelle M (2014) Russia’s Arctic Strategies and the Future of the Far North. M.E. Sharpe, Inc., Armonk, NYGoogle Scholar
  23. McGwin K (2013) Danish navy to build new Arctic ship. Accessed 3 Jan 2017
  24. McGwin K (2015) American sentenced in narwhal smuggling ring. The Arctic J (12 Jan). Accessed 3 Jan 2017
  25. Medvedev D (2008) Osnovy Gosudarstvennoi Politiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii v Arktike na Period do 2020 Goda I Dal’neishuiu Perspektivu [Foundations of the State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic up to and Beyond 2020]. Accessed 11 Dec 2016 (in Russian)
  26. Mikhailov A, Voloshin V (2012) Voennyi Atomny Batiskaf ‘Losharik’ Ispytali v Arktike [The Nuclear-Powered Military Bathyscaphe ‘Losharik’ was tried in the Arctic], Izvestiya, 27 Oct. Accessed 6 Jan 2017 (in Russian)
  27. Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada (2009) Canada’s northern strategy: our north, our heritage, our future. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  28. National Defense and Canadian Forces (2008) Canada first defense strategy. Available at: Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  29. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2009) New building blocks in the north, the next step in the government’s high north strategy.ådene/new_building_blocks_in_the_north.pdf. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  30. President of the United States (2013) National strategy for the Arctic region (May). Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  31. Prime Minister’s Office (2013) Finland’s strategy for the Arctic region. Accessed 16 Dec 2016
  32. Putin V (2013) Strategiya Razvitiya Arkticheskoi Zony Rossiyskoi Federatsiii Obespecheniya Natsional’noi Bezopasnosti na Period do 2020 Goda [The Strategy for the Development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation and Ensuring National Security for the Period up to 2020]. Approved by President Vladimir Putin on 20 Feb 2013. http://www.пpaвитeльcтвo.pф/docs/22846. Accessed 11 Dec 2016 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. Stoltenberg T (2009) Nordic Cooperation on foreign and security policy. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, OsloGoogle Scholar
  34. Syring JD (2013) Ballistic missile defense overview. Accessed 11 Jan 2017
  35. Tebin P (2015) The Doomsday ships: new U.S. Ballistic missile submarine program. Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  36. The International Bering Sea Forum (2006) Issues. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  37. The Norwegian Ministry of Defense (2012) The new Norwegian long-term defense plan—summary. Accessed 12 June 2016
  38. The Norwegian Ministry of Defense (2014) Future acquisitions for the Norwegian armed forces 2014–2022. Accessed 12 June 2016
  39. U.S. Army (2016a). 1st Stryker brigade combat team (28 Apr). Available at: Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  40. U.S. Army (2016b). Northern warfare training center. Available at: Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  41. U.S. Coast Guard (2013) Arctic strategy. Accessed 16 Dec 2016
  42. U.S. Department of Defense (2010) Ballistic missile defense review report. Accessed 11 Jan 2017
  43. U.S. Navy (2016a) Fleet Ballistic missile submarines—SSBN. America’s Navy, 12 Jan. Available at: Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  44. U.S. Navy (2016b) Navy submarines arrive in Arctic for ICEX 2016. America’s Navy, 24 June. Available at: Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  45. Vasiliev A (2012) Russia’s approaches to international cooperation in the Arctic. Arctic Herald 1:12–27Google Scholar
  46. Wezeman S (2012) Military capabilities in the Arctic. SIPRI, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  47. Woolf A (2012) Conventional prompt global strike and long-range Ballistic missiles: background and issues. Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC. Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  48. Woolf A (2016) U.S. strategic nuclear forces: background, developments, and issues. Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC. Accessed 10 Jan 2017
  49. Zagorsky A (2013) Arkticheskie ucheniya Severnogoplota [The Arctic exercises of the Northern Fleet]. Accessed 11 Dec 2016 (in Russian)
  50. Zilanov VK (2016) The Russian experience of IUU-extraction of marine living resources in the Arctic seas’ enclaves. Arctic Herald 4(19):44–49 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. Zysk K (2008) Russian military power and the Arctic. Russian Foreign Policy (EU–Russia Center’s Review) 8:80–86Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations