Massive Stars and Their Supernovae

  • Friedrich-Karl ThielemannEmail author
  • Roland Diehl
  • Alexander Heger
  • Raphael Hirschi
  • Matthias Liebendörfer
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 453)


Stars more massive than about 8–10 solar masses evolve differently from their lower-mass counterparts: nuclear energy liberation is possible at higher temperatures and densities, due to gravitational contraction caused by such high masses, until forming an iron core that ends this stellar evolution. The star collapses thereafter, as insufficient pressure support exists when energy release stops due to Fe/Ni possessing the highest nuclear binding per nucleon, and this implosion turns into either a supernova explosion or a compact black hole remnant object. Neutron stars are the likely compact-star remnants after supernova explosions for a certain stellar mass range. In this chapter, we discuss this late-phase evolution of massive stars and their core collapse, including the nuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis products. We also include in this discussion more exotic outcomes, such as magnetic jet supernovae, hypernovae, gamma-ray bursts and neutron star mergers. In all cases we emphasize the viewpoint with respect to the role of radioactivities.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friedrich-Karl Thielemann
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Roland Diehl
    • 3
  • Alexander Heger
    • 4
    • 5
  • Raphael Hirschi
    • 6
  • Matthias Liebendörfer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion ResearchDarmstadtGermany
  3. 3.Max Planck Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikExcellence Cluster ‘Universe’GarchingGermany
  4. 4.Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and AstronomyMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  5. 5.Tsung-Dao Lee InstituteShanghaiChina
  6. 6.University of KeeleKeeleUK

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